نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

2 گروه نوآوری وکارآفرینی، پژوهشکده مطالعات فناوری‌های نوین، سازمان پژوهش‌های علمی و صنعتی ایران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف:
معضلات و چالش‌های زیست ­محیطی از نگرانی ­های عمده­ ی جامعه امروزی است. اغلب این چالش‌ها ناشی از رفتار انسان­ها است که می ­توان از طریق تغییر در نگرش و رفتار ایشان و آگاهی بخشیدن از عواقب این معضلات، بر آن‌ها فائق آمد. برخی از مهم ترین رفتارهای زیست ‌محیط ‌گرایانه شامل مصرف انرژی، حفاظت از آب و خاک، بازیافت و مانند آن‌ها می‌باشد که دارای مزایای شخصی، اجتماعی و زیست­ محیطی فراوانی هستند. یکی از اهداف مهم دانشگاه­ ها، آموزش دانشجویان در جهت حفظ محیط­ زیست است. در این راستا، نقش و جایگاه آموزش عالی کشاورزی از جایگاه خاصی برخوردار است. بر این اساس، هدف این مطالعه بر "تحلیل عوامل مؤثر بر رفتار زیست‌محیط‌گرایانه از دیدگاه دانشجویان در نظام آموزش عالی کشاورزی ایران براساس نظریه اجتماعی، شناختی بندورا" قرار گرفت. 
مواد و روش‌ها:
این پژوهش از نوع پژوهش­ های توصیفی ـ همبستگی و علّی ـ رابطه ­ای است. جامعه آماری مورد مطالعه، دانشجویان دانشکده­ های کشاورزی ایران بودند که 129 نفر از آن­ها با استفاده از فرمول کوکران و روش نمونه­ گیری خوشه‌‌ای تصادفی دو مرحله‌ای بر اساس قطب‌‌های علمی پنج‌گانه کشور، به ­عنوان نمونه انتخاب شدند (236973=N).  ابزار پژوهش، پرسشنامه ­ای بود که روایی آن توسط پانلی از متخصصان ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی به تأیید رسید و پایایی دسته گویه های آن با استفاده از ضریب آلفای کرنباخ (0.87 ≤α ≤ 0.66) محقق گردید.
 نتایج و بحث:
نتایج نشان داد که به­ غیر از سطح تحصیلات دانشجویان، همبستگی مثبت و معنی­داری بین رفتار زیست‌ محیط‌گرایانه و سایر متغیرهای مورد بررسی مؤثر بر آن وجود دارد. در این راستا، نیت، خودپنداره، انتظارات پیامدی، خودنظم­ دهی، ادراک از رفتار دیگران و خودکارآمدی به ­ترتیب بیشترین میزان همبستگی با رفتار زیست ‌محیط‌گرایانه را دارا بودند. نتایج حاصل از تحلیل علّی نشان داد که متغیرهای "ادراک از رفتار دیگران"، "انتظارات پیامدی" و "خودپنداره" تأثیر معنی ­داری بر رفتار زیست ­محیط­گرایانه  داشتند که این با نظریه اجتماعی، شناختی بندورا همسو است. ولی "نیت"، "خودکارآمدی" و "خودنظم­ دهی" تأثیر معنی­ داری بر آن نداشتند.
 نتیجه ‌گیری:
واکاوی نتایج حاصل از تحلیل مسیر، نشان‌دهنده آن است که رفتار زیست محیط‌ گرایانه دانشجویان در نظام آموزش عالی  کشاورزی تحت تأثیر ادراک از رفتار دیگران است و آن‌ها از مشاهده‌ی رفتار دیگران و پیامدهای حاصله از آن یاد می‌گیرند و رفتار می‌کنند. چنین یافته‌ای اهمیت محیط‌های اجتماعی را نشان می‌دهد. به عبارت دیگر، هر چند ممکن است افراد به لحاظ فردی دارای انگیزه‌ها و رفتارهایی در جهت حفظ محیط‌زیست باشند ولی این رفتار تحت تأثیر محیط اجتماعی ایشان است و فراهم کردن چنین محیطی یکی از استلزامات نظام‌های آموزش عالی در جهت ایجاد دانشگاه‌های سبز تلقی می‌گردد. در پایان، بر اساس نتایج پژوهش، پیشنهادهایی ارائه گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Social-cognitive conceptualization of students’ pro-environmental behavior in Iranian higher agricultural education system

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Neisi 1
  • Masoud Bijani 1
  • Negin Fallah Haghighi 2

1 Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, College of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University (TMU), Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Technology Development Studies (DTDS), Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST), Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction:
Environmental problems and Chalenges are one of the major concerns of today's society. Often, these chalenges stem from human behavior that can be overcome by changing their attitudes and behaviors and promoting the consequences of these problems. Some of the most important pro-environmental behaviors include energy consumption, water and soil conservation, recycling and the like, with many personal, social and environmental benefits. One of the major goals of universities is to educate students towards environmental issues. In this regard, the role and position of agricultural higher education is of particular importance. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to "analyze the factors affecting pro-environmental behavior as perceived by students in Iran's agricultural higher education system based on Bandura's social-cognitive theory".

Materials and methods:
This study is a descriptive-correlational and causal-relational research. The statistical population of this study was students at state colleges of agriculture in Iran. 129 of them were selected using a random two-stage cluster sampling based on five scientific poles of the country (N = 236973). The research instrument was a questionnaire whose validity was confirmed by a panel of experts in the field of agricultural extension and education and its reliability was determined using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient (0.66≤α≤0.87).

Results and discussion:
The results showed that there is a positive and significant correlation between pro-environmental behavior and other effective variables other than the Students’ level of education. In this regard, intention, self-identity, outcome expectancy, self-regulation, perception of others' behavior and self-efficacy had the highest correlation with pro-environmental behavior. The results of the causal analysis showed that the variables of "perception of others Behavior", "outcome expectancy" and "self-identity" had a significant effect on pro-environmental behavior which is in line with the Bandura's social-cognitive theory, but "intention", "self-efficacy" and "self-regulation" had no significant effect.

Conclusion:
Causal analysis results showed the students’ pro-environmenal behavior in the higher agricultural education system is influenced by the perception of others’ behavior and they learn from observation and consequences of others' behavior. Such findings show the importance of social environments. In other words, although individuals may have motivations and behaviors in order to preserve the environment, but this behavior is influenced by their social environment and providing such an environment is considered one of the implications of higher education systems for creating green universities. At the end, based on the findings, some recommendations have been presented.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Pro-environmental behavior
  • students
  • Agricultural higher education
  • Bandura's social-cognitive theory
  • Iran

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