نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه اقتصاد، دانشکده علوم اجتماعی و اقتصاد، دانشگاه الزهرا، تهران

2 دانشکده علوم اجتماعی و اقتصاد، دانشگاه الزهرا، تهران

چکیده

اگرچه مدت هاست بشر متوجه اهمیت محیط زیست به عنوان بستر توسعه پایدار در زندگی خود شده، اما تهدیدات زیست محیطی در فرایند توسعه کشورها یک واقعیت انکارناپذیر است. از طرفی، بی توجهی به عوامل مؤثر بر توسعه پایدار، می تواند، پیامدهای جبران ناپذیری را برای جوامع بشری در برداشته باشد در این راستا، با توجه به نقش آموزش در پیشگیری از تخریب محیط زیست، هدف از این پژوهش بررسی تاثیر آموزش بر رشد تولید و انتشار CO2 به عنوان شاخص کیفیت محیط زیست طی دوره ی 1992 تا 2112 در کشورهای منتخب خاورمیانه است دراین تحقیق برای آزمون فرضیه ها، مدل اقتصاد سنجی پنل پویا به روش گشتاورهای تعمیم یافته (GMM) برای ایران و 11 کشور منتخب منطقه منا (کشورهای خاورمیانه و شمال آفریقا) به کار گرفته شده است نتایج حاصل از تخمین مدل، حاکی از تاثیر مثبت و معنی دار متغییر آموزش (متوسط سال های مدرسه رفتن) با ضریب 0.12 بر بهبود کیفیت محیط زیست و کاهش رشد آلودگی هوا در طول دوره مورد بررسی در کشورهای فوق است . علاوه بر این، یافتته ها نشان می دهند که بین نهادهای سیاسی و کاهش رشد جمعیت با کاهش رشد آلودگی هوا رابطه مستقلی وجود دارد به عبارت دیگر، با افزایش سطح آموزش در کشورهای در حال توسعه به طور اعم، و با افزایش متوسط سال های تحصیل در مدرسه، نسبت به کل جمعیت به طور اخص، از شدت رشد آلودگی هوا کاسته می شود از این رو، می توان با افزایش سرمایه گذاری در این بخش به کاهش انتشار CO2 در کشورهای منا کمک کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

(The Investigation of the Role of Environmental Quality in Developing Countries, (Selected MENA Countries

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sedigheh Atrkar Roshan 1
  • Zahra Fathi 2

1 Department of Economics, Faculty of Social and Economic Studies, University of Alzahra, Tehran, Iran

2 , Faculty of Social and Economic Studies,University of Alzahra, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

It is a long time that human being have paid attention to the importance of environmental issues, nevertheless, the environmental threats are part of a development process that may not be denied. Inattention to the effective criteria of sustainable development can cause irreversible costs for various societies. Based upon the role of education in the prevention of environmental degradation, the purpose of this research is to study the effect of education in production and emission of greenhouse gas of carbon dioxide during the period of 1992 to 2012. For hypotheses testing of the research, the Dynamic Panel Data (DPD) through the Generalized Moments Method (GMM) has been used for 12 selected countries including Iran in Middle East and North African Countries (MENA region. The findings of this study indicate, the positive and significant impact of the education variable on the improvement of environmental quality and reduction of air pollution. Besides, the results show that there is a direct relation between the political agencies and the lessening of population growth to the decline of air pollution. With the raise of the average schooling in total population, the growth of air pollution is declined. As a consequence, increasing investment in education and the average schooling can lead to lessen CO2 emission in selected MENA countries including Iran.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Co2 Emission Development
  • Education
  • Dynamic Panel Data
  • GMM
  • MENA Countries

Salehi S, Loghman, IG. An Empirical Study Of The Relationship Between, Awareness And Environmental Behavior, (A Case Study Of Sanandaj Rural And Urban Area), Journal Of Social Issue, Third Year; 1390; 1: 121-147. [In Persian].

Comoner B. Human and the Environment. (Translation B. Dehzad), Tehran: Green Wave, 1382. [In Persian].

Holt D, Barkemeyer R. Media Coverage Of Sustainable Development Issues-Attention Cycles Or Punctuated Equilibrium? Sustainable Development; 2012; 20: 1-17. Http://Dx.Doi.Org/10.1002/Sd.460.

Jorgenson A K. Consumption And Environmental Degradation: A Cross-National Analysis Of The Ecological Footprint. Social Problems; 2003; 50(3): 374-394. http://scholar.google.com/citations?view_op=view_ citation

Princen T. Consumption and its Externalities: Where Economy Meets Ecology Global Environmental Politics; 2001; 1(3): 11-3.

Xiao C, McCright AM. Environmental Concern and Socio Demographic Variables; A Study of Statical Models. Journal Of Environmental Education; 2007; 38: 3-14.

UNESCO, United Nations Educational, Scientific And Cultural Organization, Sustainable Development Begins With Education, How Education Can Contribute To The Proposed Post – 2015 Goals, Karel Prinsloo/ Arete, Printed In France, 2014. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002305/230 508e.pdf.

Cheah I, Phau I. Attitudes Towards Environmentally Friendly Products; The Influence Of Ecoliteracy, Interpersonal Influence And Value Orientation”, Marketing Intelligence And Planning, Bradford, 2011; 29 (5): 452.

Ramezani Ghavam Abadi, M H. Strategic Review Of Environmental Education In Iran: Needs And Bottlenecks. Quarterly Strategy; 1391; 65: 257-233. [In Persian].

Nabipoor F, Farbin M, Hamedi F. The Impact Of Education On Prevalence Of Environmental Protection Values, Second National Congress Of Environmental Research, Association For Environmental Assessment, Hegmataneh. 2014. Iran. [In Persian].

Nelson RR, Phelps E S. Investment In Humans, Technological Diffusion, And Economic Growth” The American Economic Review; 1966; 56 (12): 69-75.

Bimonte S. Information Access, Income Distribution, And The Environmental Kuznets Curve” Ecological Economics; 2002; 41(1): 145- 156.https://mpra.ub.unimuenchen.de/39553/1/M PRA_paper_39553.pdf.

Frankel J A. The environment and Globalization, NBER Working Paper No. 2003;10090.

Bengtsson, S. Hegemony And The Politics Of Policy-Making For Education For Sustainable Development A Case Study In Vietnam. The Journal of Environmental Education; 2016; 47 (2): 77–90.

Arellano M, Bond S. Some Tests Of Specification For Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence And An Application To Employment Equations, Review Of Economic Studies, Blackwell Publishing; 1991; 58(2): 277-97. [16]Blundell R, Bond S. Initial Conditions And Moment Restrictions In Dynamic Panel Data Models. Journal Of Econometrics; 1998; 87: 115–143.

Somlanare R. Does Education Really Matter for Environmental Quality? Document de travail de la serie Etudes et Documents. 2010. [18]Beck T, Demiraguc-Kunt A, Levin F. Inequality And Poverty: Cross-Country Evidence, World Bank Policy Research Working World Bank, 2004; Paper 3338, Washington D.C.

Arellano M, Bover O. Another Look At The Instrumental Variable Estimation Of ErrorComponents Models. Journal Of Econometrics; 1995; 68: 29–51.

Barro R, Lee J, Jong-Wha. A New Data Set Of Educational Attainment In The World, 1950– 2010. 2012. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/ S0304387812000855

Levin A, Lin CF, Chu J. Unit Root Test In Panel Data: Asymptotic And Finite Sample Properties Journal of Econometrics; 2002;108 (1): 1-24.

Farzin YH, Bond CA. Democracy And Environmental Quality, Journal Of Development Economics, 2006; 81 (1): 213-235. [In Persian]

Rafiee H, Amir Nejad H. The Role Of Education In The Increasing Tendency Of Individuals To Environmental Protection: (The Case Of The Caspian Sea). Environmental Sciences, (1388); Vol.7, No.1, Autumn; 2009: 95-108. [In Persian]

Culas RJ. Deforestation and the environmental Kuznets curve: An institutional perspective, Ecological Economics, 2007; 61 (2-3): 429-437. https://mpra.ub.unimuenchen.de/39553/1/MPRA _paper_39553.pdf

Tamazian A, Chousa JP, Vadlamannati KC. Does Higher Economic and Financial Development lead to Environmental Degradation: Evidence from BRICs Countries, Energy Policy; 2009; 37 (1): 246-253.