نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده علوم زراعی و پژوهشکده فناوری های زیستی گیاهان دارویی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ساری، ایران

10.52547/envs.2021.37179

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: در سال­ های اخیر استفاده از گیاهان دارویی و داروهای گیاهی، جایگاه خاص خود را در بین عموم مردم پیدا کرد، که این امر موجب شناخت و معرفی گیاهان دارویی جهت کاربرد در صنایع داروسازی شده است. رویشگاه ­های طبیعی ایران به ­عنوان منابع ارزشمند ژنی تعدادی زیادی از گیاهان دارویی مفید می ­باشند که از جمله آن­ها می ­توان به رشد خودرو زولنگ در شمال کشور اشاره نمود. زولنگ گیاهی علفی و چند ساله از خانواده چتریان است که به وفور در نواحی شمالی کشور رویش می­ کند. این گیاه با ارزش دارای ترکیب­ های دارویی نظیر: استیلن، فلاونوئید، ساپونین­ های تری ترپن می ­باشد.
مواد و روش ­ها: این تحقیق جهت بررسی تأثیر ارتفاع بر ترکیب ­های آنتی اکسیدانی و ترکیب ­های تشکیل دهنده اسانس گیاه زولنگ در سه ارتفاع(30، 100 و 300 متر از سطح دریا) از بخش سوادکوه استان مازندران که رویشگاه طبیعی این گیاه بود، انجام شد. گیاهان پس از جمع آوری و خشک شدن جهت اندازه گیری صفاتی نظیر: آنتی ­اکسیدان، فنل، فلاونوئید با حلال متانول عصاره گیری شدند و اندازه گیری انجام شد. همچنین جهت شناسایی ترکیب­ های اسانس، و درصد اسانس، به روش تقطیر با آب و دستگاه کلونجر استخراج اسانس صورت گرفت و با دستگاه کروماتوگرافی گازی(GC/MS) ترکیب­ های اسانس استحصال شده، شناسایی گردید.
نتایج و بحث: بنابر نتایج این پژوهش، صفات آنتی­ اکسیدان، فنل، فلاونوئید و درصد اسانس در سطح یک درصد معنی­ دار (p<0.01) شدند. این نتایج بیانگر این موضوع است که ارتفاع ازسطح دریا می ­تواند روی ترکیب­ های فنلی و آنتی اکسیدانی گیاه زولنگ مؤثر باشد. همچنین این نتایج نشان می­ دهد که ترکیب­ های آنتی اکسیدانی و فنلی تحت تأثیر ارتفاع هستند. درصد مهار رادیکال آزاد DPPH در گیاهان برداشت شده از ارتفاع ­های300 متر بیشترین میزان را نشان داد که میزان درصد مهار این گیاهان نسبت به ارتفاع30 متر ازسطح دریا تا دو برابر افزایش یافت. میزان فلاونوئید ارتفاع30 و 100 متر ارتفاع ازسطح دریا اختلافی نشان نداد، اما نسبت به 300 متر اختلاف بیشتر بود. همچنین با افزایش ارتفاع، درصداسانس کاهش می­ یابد. نتایج حاصل از همبستگی صفات نشان می­ دهد که فلاونوئید و فنل با افزایش درصد اسانس افزایش یافته و ارتباط معنی­ داری دارند. همچنین صفت درصد مهار رادیکال آزاد DPPH ارتباط معکوسی با صفات درصد اسانس و فلاونوئید دارد. نتایج کروماتوگرافی گازی اسانس زولنگ نشان دادکه با افزایش ارتفاع، ترکیب­ هایی نظیر: D-Limonene و beta.-Sesquiphellandrene افزایش و ترکیب cis-.alpha.-Bisabolene کاهش یافت. نتایج حاصل از آنالیز اسانس این گیاه با دستگاه کروماتوگرافی(GC/MS)، نشان داد که مقدار ترکیب ­های شناسایی شده لزوما به ارتفاع وابسته نبوده و می ­تواند تابع عامل ­های دیگری باشد.
نتیجه­ گیری: نتایج نشان داد که میزان مهار رادیکال آزاد DPPH باافزایش ارتفاع، افزایش می­ یابد اما روند میزان درصد اسانس به ­صورت معکوس با افزایش ارتفاع کاهش یافت. همچنین تفاوت معنی ­داری بین ارتفاع30 و100 متر از سطح دریا در فلاونوئید حاصل نشد. تعداد ترکیب­ های شناسایی شده حاصل از کروماتوگرافی گازی در ارتفاع 300 متر از سطح دریا بیشترین بود. درواقع از ارتفاع 30 تا100 متر تعداد ترکیب­ ها کم شده و از ارتفاع 100 تا 300 تعداد ترکیب ­های شناسایی شده بیشتر شده است. همچنین سه ترکیب D-Limonene، beta.-Sesquiphellandrene و cis-.alpha.-Bisabolene تابع ارتفاع از سطح دریا بودند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Quantity and quality of antioxidant compounds and components of essential oil of the medicinal plant (Eryngium campestre) under the influence of altitude

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mojtaba Ismailzadeh
  • Hossein Moradi

Department of Horticultural Sciences, Crop Sciences College Research Institute of Medicinal Plant Biotechnologies (RIMPBio) Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction: In recent years, the use of medicinal plants and herbal medicines has found its special place among the general public, which has led to the recognition and introduction of medicinal plants for use in the pharmaceutical industry. Iran's natural habitats are valuable genetic resources for a large number of useful medicinal plants, including the growth of the Eryngium vehicle in the north of the country. Eryngium is a perennial herbaceous plant of the Umbelliferae family that grows in abundance in the northern parts of the country. This valuable plant contains medicinal compounds such as acetylene, flavonoids, triterpene saponins.
Material and methods: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of altitude on antioxidant compounds and constituents of essential oil of Eryngium
  at three altitudes (30, 100 and 300 meters above sea level) in Savadkuh section of Mazandaran Province, which was the natural habitat of this plant. After collection and drying, the plants were extracted with methanol solvent to measure traits such as antioxidants, phenol, and flavonoids. Also, in order to identify the essential oil compounds, and the percentage yield of essential oil, the essential oil was extracted by distillation with water and clevenger apparatus and the extracted essential oil compounds were identified by gas chromatography (GC / MS).
Results and discussion: According to the results of this study, the traits of antioxidants, phenol, flavonoids and essential oil content were significant at the level of one percent (p <0.01). These results indicate that in the Eryngium, altitudes can be effective on phenolic and antioxidant compounds content of Eryngium. Research has shown that the chemical properties of the soil and altitude are the most important factor in changes in the amount of essential oil. These results show that antioxidant and phenolic compounds are affected by altitude and factors such as the amount and intensity of light, ultraviolet rays, temperature and precipitation. An altitude of 300 meters above sea level had the best effect on the percentage of free radicals in DPPH(2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and doubled the percentage of salinity compared to 30 meters above sea level. However, in flavonoids, they did not show any difference between 30 and 100 meters above sea level, but they differed from plants harvested from 300 meters above sea level and included a larger amount. Also, with increasing height, the percentage of essential oil decreases. The results of the correlation of traits show that flavonoids and phenol have a significant relationship with increasing the percentage of essential oil yield. Antioxidants are also inversely related to the percentage of essential oils and flavonoids. The results of gas chromatography showed that compounds such as: D-limonene and beta.-sesquiphellandrene decreased with increasing altitude in essential oil and cis-.alpha.-Bisabolene increased with increasing altitude, in the essential oil of Eryngium. We also showed that the amount of identified compounds was not necessarily dependent on height and could be a function of other factors.
Conclusion: The results showed that the amount of free radical inhibition of DPPH increased with increasing altitude, but the trend of percentage of essential oil yield decreased inversely with increasing altitude. Also, there was no significant difference between 30 and 100 meters above sea level in flavonoids. The number of compounds identified by gas chromatography was the highest at an altitude of 300 m above sea level. Also, the three compounds D-limonene, beta.-sesquiphellandrene and cis-.alpha.-Bisabolene were a function of altitude.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Flavonoids
  • gas chromatography
  • Pheno
  • Umbrella
Arianfar, M., Akbari Nodehi, D., Hemmati, Kh. and Rostampour, M., 2018. The effect of height and direction on essential oil yield and some phytochemical properties of Artemisia Boiss aucheri and Artemisia Besser sieberi in South Khorasan rangelands. Journal of Rangeland Research, 12 (3): 281-294.
Ayoub A., Al-Azizi, M., König W., Kubeczka KH., 2006. Essential oils and a novel polyacetylene from Eryngium yuccifolium Michaux. (Apiaceae). Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 21(6):864-8.
Azarnivand, H., 2002. Investigation of botanical and ecological traits of Artemisia sieberi and Artemisia aucheri in southern Alborz mountains. PhD Thesis in Range Management, University of Tehran
Behtari, B., Gholami, F., Khalid A.K., Tilaki G.D. and Bahari, R., 2012., Effect of growth stages and altitude on artemisia herba-alba asso essential oil growing in Iran Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants
, 15: 307-313
Chang C.C., Yang M.H., Wen H.M., Chern J.C,. 2002. Estmation of total flavonoid content in proplis by two complementary colorimetric methods. Food Drug Anal, 10: 178-182.
Crowden, R., Haeme, K. and Heywood, V. H., 1969.,  Phytochemistry. 8:1963.
Dehghani Bidgoli, R., 2012. Comparison of the effect of some environmental and pasture parameters on the quantity and quality of essential oils of Siberian and Artemisia plants in steppe and semi-steppe rangelands of Isfahan province. PhD Thesis in Rangeland Management, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
Delnavazhashamloyan, B., Atai Azimi, A. and Mozhdehi, M., 2015. Identification and evaluation of some secondary metabolites of leaf, stem and root organs of Guinea (Dendrostellera lessertii (Wikstr) Van.Tigeh.) And their alterative effect on barley and mung bean plants. Journal of Plant Ecophysiology, Volume 7, Number 22: 162-177.
Ebrahimzadeh, M. A. and Nabavi, S. F., 2009. Antioxidant activity of leaves and inflorescence of Eryngium Caucasicum Trautv at flowering stage. Pharmacognocy Research, 1(6): 435-439.
Ebrahimzadeh, M. A., Rehman A., Naeem, M.A. and Mushtaq, N.,  1999. Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on nutrient contents and some properties of eroded loess soils. Pakistan journal of soil science 16: 63-68.
Erdelmeier, C. A. J. and Sticher, D., 1985. Planta Med.407
Flamini G., Tebano, M. and Cion, P.L., 2007. Composition of the essential oils from leafy parts of the shoots, flowers and fruits of Eryngium amethystinum from Amiata Mount (Tuscany, Italy). Food Chemistry, 107(2): 671 - 674.                                                                    
Głowniak K., Madej, A. and Żak, D., 2004. Chromatographic analysis of petroleum ether extract and methanol extract from fruits of Eryngium campestre L. 4th International Symposium on Chromatography ofNatural Products, Lublin–Kazimierz Dolny (Poland), 17(14):106.
 Habibi, H., 2003. Exploring new perspectives on the world's most important medicinal plants. Faculty      of Agriculture, University of Tehran.
Haider, F., Kumar N., Banerigee, S., Naqvi, A. and Baggi, G., 2009. Effect of altitude on the essential oil constituents of Artemisia roxburghiana Besser Var. Purpurascens (Jacq) Hook. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 21(4): 303– 304
Hashemabadi, D. and Kaviani, B., 2010. Seasonal and geographical variations in the essential oils of Eryngium caucasicum Trautv growing in Iran. American-Eurasian Journal Agricaltural and Environmental Science, 8(2): 212-215.
Ismailzadeh, M. and Ghasemi, K., 2016. Comparison of Antioxidant Activity and Some Biochemical Properties of Four Medicinal Vegetables, National Conference on Medicinal Plants, Shahroud, Shahroud University of Technology - Iranian Association of Medicinal Plants.
Jamshidi, A. H.,  Aminzadeh, M., Azarnivand, H. and Abedi, M., 2006. The effect of height on the quantity and quality of essential oil of thyme (Case study of Damavand region, Tar Lake basin). Journal of Medicinal Plants, 5 (18): 17-22.
Kaur, C. and Kapoor, H.C. 2002. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of some Asian vegetables. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 37:157-161.
Khoshbakht, K., Hammera, K. and Pistrick, k., 2007. Eryngium caucasicum Trautv cultivated as a vegetable in the Elburz Mountains (Northern Iran). Jor Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 54(2): 445-8.
KOchaki, A. and M., Hosseini., 1995. Agricultural Ecology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Publications Page 164.
Le Claire, E., Schwaiger, S., Banaigs B., Stuppner, H. and Gafner, F., 2005. Distribution of a new rosmarinic acidderivative in Eryngium alpinum L. and other Apiaceae. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 53:4367-72.
Mahdavi, M., Jouri, M.H., Mahmoudi, J., Rezazadeh, F. and Mahzooni-Kachapi, S.S., 2013. Investigating the altitude effect on the quantity and quality of the essential oil in Tanacetum polycephalum Sch.-Bip. polycephalum in the Baladeh region of Nour, Iran. Chinese journal of natural medicines, 11(5):553-559.
Mirza, M. and Najaf pornography, M., 2012. Comparative study of chemical compounds of Heracleum gorganicum Rech fruit essential oil in several different altitudes in Golestan National Park. Journal of Medicinal Plants and Aromatics Research, Volume 28, Number 2: 324-329.
Mohammadnejad Ganji, S.M., Moradi, H., Ghanbarzade, A. and  Akbarzadeh, M. 2014 The effect of height in terms of quantity and quality of essential oil on Rosmarinus officinalis in Mazandaran province, Journal of Medicinal Plants Ecophytochemistry, 2 (1): 36-42
Omidbeigi, R. 1995. Approaches to the production and processing of plants, 282 pages
Omidbeigi, R. 1995. Approaches to the production and processing of medicinal plants (Vol. I). Publishing Designers Publications, 286 pages.
Omidbeigi, R. 2005. Production and processing of plants, Behnsher Publications, Mashhad, 347 pages.
Rojhan, M. S. 1995. Treatment with medicinal plants.University of Tehran Press.
Rostami Kia, Y., Fattahi, M.  and Faith A. A., 2009. Investigation of genetic diversity of pistachio populations using morphological traits of leaves and fruits. Iranian Journal of Genetic Research and Breeding of Range and Forest Plants, (17)2: 284-294.
Samsam Shariat, H. 1992. Extraction and extraction of active ingredients of medicinal plants and methods of their identification and evaluation. Mani Publications, Isfahan, 293 pages.
Slinkard. K and singleton, V., 1977. Total phenol analysis: automation and comparison with manual methods. American journal of enology and viticulture,(28): 49-55.
Srivastava, D., Haider, F., Dwivedi, P. D., Naqvi, A. A. and Bagchi, G. D., 2005. Comparative study of the leaf oil of Juniperus macropoda growing in Garhwal regions of Uttranchal (India). Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 20(5): 460-461
Tajli, A.A., Sadeghipour, A. 2010. The effect of phenological stages on the percentage and composition of essential oil of Stachys schtschegleevii. 4(1): 130-137.
Thiem, B. and Wiatrowska, I., 2007. Eryngium campestre L. (Field Eryngo) and other species of Eryngium L. little known medicinal plants. [Eryngium campestre L. (mikołajek polny) i inne gatunki Eryngium L.  mało znane rośliny lecznicze]. Herba Pol : 53(1):93-102 .
Wang, P., Su, Z., Yuan, W., Deng, G. and Li, SH., 2012. Phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities of eryngium L. (piaceae). Pharmaceutical Crops, 3: 99-120
Zidorn, C., 2010. Altitudinal variation of secondary metabolites in flowering heads of the Asteraceae: trends and causes. Phytochemistry Reviews, 9(2): 197-203.
Zobel, B. J van Buijtnen. 1989. Wood variation its causes and control.