نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه مرتع و آبخیزداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و محیط زیست، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

2 گروه مرتع و آبخیزداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و محیط زیست، پژوهشکده آب و محیط زیست، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

10.29252/envs.18.4.183

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: 
پدیده روستاگزینی یا روستاگریزی اتفاقی است که امروزه زندگی اجتماعی- زیستی شهر و روستا را تحت تاثیر قرار داده است. هدف اصلی طرح‏های توسعه روستایی، افزایش قابلیت روستازیستی است. ولی اگر طرحی اجرا نشود یا نتایج مفیدی نداشته باشد، احتمال مهاجرت روستائیان به شهر افزایش می‏یابد. از این‏رو، روستاگریزی باعث مشکلاتی در شهرزیستی بویژه از طریق حاشیه‏ نشینی و تقابل فرهنگی می‏شود. حال سوال اینجاست که برای روستازیستی پایدار، چه عواملی دخیل هستند؟ با بررسی مطالعات صورت گرفته، روستازیستی بیشتر متاثر از مولفه‌های اعتماد اجتماعی، انسجام اجتماعی، مشارکت اجتماعی، فرهنگی، اقتصادی، رفاهی، و محیطی است. در این راستا، این پژوهش به میزان تاثیرگذاری این عوامل بر روستا و شرایط زندگی در آن می­پردازد و هدف آن، شناخت عوامل موثر بر پایداری پدیده روستازیستی است.
مواد و روش‏ها:
به منظور بررسی پدیده روستازیستی پایدار، روستاهای حوضه آبخیز شهرستان تربت‏جام به عنوان پایلوت آماری انتخاب شدند. این پژوهش براساس نوع داده‏های جمع‏آوری و تحلیل شده، تحقیقی کمی، و از لحاظ نوع برخورد با مسئله، مطالعه‏ای میدانی است. با توجه به جامعه مورد مطالعه (2683 نفر جمعیت و 560 خانوار) و به کمک فرمول کوکران، تعداد 228 خانوار به عنوان حجم نمونه تعیین شدند. در مرحله بعد، به روش سیستماتیک تصادفی، نمونه‏ها مشخص و مورد آماربرداری و پرسشگری قرار گرفتند.
نتایج و بحث:
یافته‏ها نشان می‏دهند که شرایط روستازیستی به صورت پایا و پایدار صورت نمی‏گیرد زیرا چالش‏های اجتماعی-زیستی فراوانی وجود دارند. طبق نتایج، مولفه‌های اعتماد اجتماعی، انسجام اجتماعی، مشارکت اجتماعی، فرهنگی، اقتصادی، رفاهی، و محیطی، با نسبت‏های مختلف، رویکرد روستاگزینی یا روستاگریزی را تحمیل می‏کنند. در این پژوهش ضریب تاثیرگذاری مولفه‌ها در روستازیستی به ترتیب از زیاد به کم، اعتماد اجتماعی، فرهنگی، رفاهی، محیطی، انسجام اجتماعی، اقتصادی و مشارکت اجتماعی به دست آمده است. به عنوان نمونه، یکی از عوامل موثر بر کیفیت زندگی مردم در روستا نوع ارتباط آنها با دیگر افراد روستا و وابستگی‏های اجتماعی‏شان است. براساس نتایج این پژوهش، اعتماد اجتماعی، که بر همکاری و همیاری بین مردم تاکید دارد، به عنوان مهم‌ترین مولفه موثر بر روستازیستی پایدار شناخته شد. بنابراین می‌توان با افزایش اعتماد میان مردم، مشارکت و نظر مثبت آنها را جلب نمود. بعلاوه، به علت همکاری آن‌ها، میزان موفقیت طرح‌ها افزایش یافته و هزینه‌های توسعه روستایی کاهش می‏یابد. از سوی دیگر، مشارکت در امور اجتماعی نوعی تعهد و قبول مسئولیت فردی و اجتماعی است که باعث افزایش اعتماد اجتماعی می­گردد و همه افراد ناگزیر به پذیرش آن هستند به‌گونه‌ای که در آن افراد به خاطر منافع گروهی از منافع شخصی دست می‌کشند. در واقع در آن، افراد به سطحی از درک رسیده‌اند که منافع کل را به خرد ترجیح می‌دهند. ولی این منطقه از پایین‏ترین میزان مشارکت برخوردار است. در نتیجه، پدیده روستازیستی نمی‏تواند پایدار باشد.
نتیجه‏ گیری:
اعتماد اجتماعی و همچنین وجود مشارکت در بین افراد ساکن روستا، از شرایط مهم توسعه روستایی هستند. می‌توان از طریق آموزش و آگاهی به مردم در مورد واقعیت و مبنای اعتماد اجتماعی و نیز شیوه‌های مشارکت و پیامدهای آن، فراهم‏سازی فضای باز برای انتقاد و تصمیم‌گیری و تفویض اختیار، و همچنین تشویق فعالیت‌های گروهی، دلبستگی و تعلق خاطر اجتماعی-زیستی را در میان مردم افزایش داد. به هر حال، در یک دید کلی می‏توان تاکید نمود که شناسایی عوامل موثر بر روستازیستی پایدار، گامی جهت برنامه‏ریزی برای پایداری توسعه روستایی است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Sustainable rurality in the Mousa Abad watershed of Torbat Jam County

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amir Moradi 1
  • Mahdi Kolahi 2

1 Department of Rangeland and Watershed Management, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

2 Department of Rangeland and Watershed Management, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Water and Environment Research Institute, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction:
Residence in a village or rural evacuation are phenomena that have affected the socio-biological life in any village or city. One of the reasons that convinces individuals to stay in their villages and solve the problem of rural evasion is the creation of a suitable living environment in rural areas. The main purpose of any rural development planning is to improve the quality of life of rural people via the identification of factors that enhance and facilitate its implementation. On the other hand, to tackle problems of migration and overpopulation in cities, one must turn to sustainable ruralism. Rurality can be influenced by some components such as social capital (social trust, social cohesion, and social participation), culture, economic, welfare, and natural attraction. This study investigated the impacts of these factors on villages and their living conditions. It also aimed to identify the factors influencing the sustainability of the rurality phenomenon.
Material and methods:
The villages at the watershed of Torbat Jam County were selected as statistical pilots in order to survey sustainable rurality. The inquiry was quantitative research based on the type of data collected and analyzed, and a field study in term of the type of problem encountered. According to the Cochran formula, 228 households were selected as the samples. Based on the sample houses on the map, they were random systematically surveyed.
Results and discussion:
The findings showed that rurality conditions are hard to be sustained because of many social-biological challenges. According to the results, the social, cultural, economic, political, welfare, and natural attractions of the villages are influential factors on sustainable ruralism, which may impose rurality or rural evasion approaches with different ratios. In this study, components’ impacts on rurality were calculated, from high to low, as social trust, cultural, social welfare, natural attraction, social cohesion, economic, and social participation, respectively. For example, one of the factors affecting the quality of life of rural people is the type of relationship they have with other individuals in the villages and their social affiliations. Based on our findings, social trust, which emphasizes on cooperation and cooperation among people, was identified as the most important factor influencing sustainable rurality. Therefore, their participation and positive attitudes can be achieved by increasing social trust. Furthermore, it increases the success of rural development projects and decreases their costs due to high cooperation. On the other hand, participation in social affairs is a form of commitment and acceptance of individual and social responsibility that enhances social trust, and all individuals are forced to accept it in such a way that individuals abandon personal interest for the benefit of the group. Consequently, participation among individuals is a prerequisite in the development of every country, whether in the whole or even in the micro sector.   
Conclusion:
Main conditions for rural development are social trust and the existence of participation among inhabitants in rural areas. Socio-biological attachment and belonging among people can be achieved through education and awareness of people about the basis of social trust and ways of participation and its consequences, creating an open room for criticism and decision-making, as well as encouraging group activities. However, it can be emphasized that identification of factors affecting sustainable rurality is a step towards planning for the sustainability of rural development

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Social cohesion
  • Social trust
  • Social participation
  • Natural attraction
  • Economic factor

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