نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه لرستان، خرم آباد، ایران

2 گروه کشاورزی اکولوژیک، پژوهشکده علوم محیطی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف:
امروزه تنش گرما به عنوان یکی از بزرگترین خطرها و نگرانی های تولید ذرت دانه ای است و این موضوع بیشتر در منطقه های گرم و خشک دیده میشود. تنش گرما عملکرد دانه و سرعت فتوسنتز گیاهی را کاهش و تنفس را افزایش میدهد. گیاه ذرت به تنش گرما و دماهای بالا در مرحله گلدهی بسیار حساس بوده زیرا دماهای بالاسبب عقیمی دانه گرده و به موازات آن کاهش عملکرد دانه میشود. با این وجود راهکارهایی برای جلوگیری مواجه شدن مرحله گلدهی ذرت با تنش گرما وجود دارد. راهکارهای دقیق مدیریتی مانند تغییر تاریخ کاشت و رقم به عنوان روشهایی مناسب برای مقابله با تنش گرما استفاده میشوند. از طرفی مدل های شبیه سازی رشد گیاهان زراعی برای بررسی این راهکارها ابزار مفیدی می باشند. بنابراین، مطالعه حاضر به منظور بررسی اثر مخاطرات تنش گرما (فراوانی و شدت گرما) بر عملکرد ذرت دانه ای در شرایط اقلیمی خشک و نیمه خشک ایران و تعیین دامنه ی مخاطرات گرما برای این محصول با استفاده از رهیافت مدل سازی انجام گرفت.
مواد و روشها:
به منظور ارزیابی مخاطرات ناشی از تنش گرما در ذرت دانهای کشور یک آزمایش شبیه سازی در پنج منطقه (ایرانشهر، دزفول، پارسآباد، کرمانشاه و کرمان) طراحی شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل تاریخ کاشتهای مختلف: تاریخ کاشت مرسوم (تاریخ کاشت کشاورزان منطقه)، دیرهنگام (20 روز بعد از تاریخ کاشت مرسوم) و زودهنگام (20 روز قبل از تاریخ کاشت مرسوم) و دو رقم: سینگل کراس 704( دیررس) و سینگل کراس 260( زودرس) بودند. برای انجام این کار، داده های بلند مدت اقلیمی روزانه هر منطقه شامل بیشینه و کمینه دما، بارش و تشعشع از سازمان هواشناسی کشور جمع آوری گردید. این داده ها به عنوان ورودی مدل شبیه سازی گیاه زراعی مورد استفاده قرار گرفتند. در مطالعه حاضر، مدل زراعی APSIM برای شبیه سازی رشد و نمو گیاه ذرت استفاده گردید. برای بررسی مخاطرات گرما بر روی ذرت دانه ای، سه بعد، شامل مرحله حساس (گلدهی) ذرت دانه ای به دماهای حدی، فراوانی دماهای حدی در مرحله حساس و شدت دماهای حدی در این مرحله در نظر گرفته شدند. همچنین دامنه ی ریسک تنش گرما برای گلدهی در هر منطقه برابر با اولین روز از سال با بیشنه دمای باالی 36 درجه سانتی گراد تا آخر روز سال با دمای باالی 36 درجه سانتی گراد بود.
نتایج و بحث:
نتایج نشان داد که دامنه ی مخاطرات (تعداد روزهایی متوالی از سال با ماکزیمم دمای باالی 36 سانتیگراد) برای بوم نظام های ذرت ایران به طور میانگین 94.4 روز بود که در منطقه ها و اقلیم های مختلف متفاوت بود. کمترین بازه مخاطرات در منطقه نیمه خشک و معتدل پارسآباد(14 روز) و بیشترین مقدار در منطقه گرم و خشک ایرانشهر (183 روز) ثبت گردید. همچنین درصد تعداد روزهایی با دمای باالی 36 درجه سانتیگراد در طول دوره گلدهی ذرت برابر با 63.5 درصد و شدت تنش گرما برابر 37.09 درجه سانتیگراد بود. این موضوع سبب کاهش عملکرد ذرت دانه ای کشور میشود به طوری که عملکرد دانه در حال حاضر برابر 6196.5 کیلوگرم شبیه سازی شد. با این وجود تاریخ کاشت های زودهنگام و رقم زودرس در کشت بهاره درصد تعداد روزهایی با دمای باالی 36 درجه سانتیگراد در طول دوره گلدهی ذرت (37.2 درصد) و شدت تنش گرما (35.1 درجه سانتیگراد) را کاهش داد و عملکرد دانه را به 7486.9 کیلوگرم افزایش داد. همچنین تاریخ کاشت های دیرهنگام و رقم دیررس در کشت تابستانه درصد تعداد روزهایی با دمای باالی 36 درجه سانتیگراد در طول دوره گلدهی ذرت (38.9 درصد) و شدت تنش گرما (35.3 درجه سانتیگراد) را کاهش داد و عملکرد دانه را به 7743.6 کیلوگرم افزایش داد.
نتیجه گیری:
به طور کلی، نتایج نشان داد که ذرت دانهای در حال حاضر تحت یک مخاطره باالی تنش گرما کشت میشود. به منظور کاهش مخاطرات و افزایش عملکرد دانه، کشاورزان در هر منطقه باید تاریخ کاشت ها و ارقام بهینه را بنابر فصل کشت به کار ببرند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Simulating the risk of heat stress on grain maize production under arid and semi-arid conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Khosro Azizi 1
  • Sajjad Rahimi-Moghaddam 2

1 Department of Agronomy and Plants Breeding, Faculty of Agricultural, Lorestan University, Khorram Abad, Iran

2 Department of Agroecology, Environmental Sciences Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction:
Heat stress is one of the most important threats and concerns for maize production, which mostly occurs in hot and dry areas. Heat stress reduces grain yield and the plant's photosynthesis rate and increases transpiration. Maize is very sensitive to heat stress and extreme temperatures at the flowering stage because extreme temperatures decrease pollen germination ability, and thus, decrease grain yield. However, there are some strategies to prevent the maize flowering stage from being exposed to heat stress. Careful management practices including adjusting the sowing time and cultivar can be considered as useful strategies to deal with heat stress. Crop simulation models can be used to investigate these practices. Therefore, the present study was carried out to evaluate the risk of heat stress (frequency and intensity of heat) on grain maize of Iran and evaluate the risk window for grain maize using the modeling approach.
Material and methods:
In order to evaluate the risk of heat stress in maize agroecosystems of Iran, a simulation experiment was designed in five regions (Iranshahr, Dezful, Parsabad, Kermanshah, and Kerman), three sowing times (common: farmers sowing time in each region; late: 20 days after common sowing time; early: 20 days before common sowing time), and two cultivars (SC704 and SC260 as late- and early-maturity cultivars, respectively). To do this, the long-term climatic data of each region including minimum and maximum temperatures, rainfall, and radiation were collected from Iran Meteorological Organization. These data were applied as inputs of the crop simulation model. In this study, the APSIM model was employed to simulate the growth and development of the maize plant. In order to assess the risk of heat stress on grain maize, three dimensions including the critical stage of grain maize to extreme temperatures (flowering), frequency of extreme temperatures at the critical stage, and intensity of extreme temperatures at the critical stage were evaluated. Furthermore, the risk window for maize flowering in each region was equal to the first day of the year with a temperature of over 36 °C until the last day of the year with a temperature above 36 °C.
Results and discussion:
The highest risk window of extreme temperatures was recorded in Iranshahr County (183 days) as a hot and dry region and the lowest risk window was simulated in Parsabad (14 days) as a semi-arid and temperate region. Moreover, the percentage of the number of maize flowering days with temperatures above 36 °C and the mean maximum temperature during the flowering period were 63.5% and 37.09 °C, respectively. This issue reduced the grain yield of maize in Iran so that the grain yield was simulated 6196.5 kg ha-1 . However, in the spring season, the early sowing time and the early-maturity cultivar decreased the percentage of the number of maize flowering days with temperatures above 36 °C (37.2%) and mean maximum temperature during the flowering period (35.1 °C) and increased grain yield (7486.9 kg ha-1 ). Overall, in the summer, the percentage of the number of maize flowering days with temperatures above 36 °C and mean maximum temperature during the flowering period were decreased 38.9% and 35.3 °C, respectively, and grain yield was boosted to 7743.6 kg ha-1 under the combination of late sowing time and late-maturity cultivar.
Conclusion:
The results showed that grain maize is currently cultivated by farmers under high-risk conditions of heat stress. In order to reduce the risk and increase grain yield, farmers in each region should apply the optimal sowing times and cultivars according to the growing season.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cultivar
  • Heat stress
  • Flowering
  • Sowing time

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