نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم اجتماعی، دانشکده علوم انسانی و اجتماعی، دانشگاه مازندران، مازندران، ایران

2 گروه معارف اسلامی، دانشکده علوم معارف اسلامی، دانشکده فلسفه و معارف، دانشگاه صدا و سیما، تهران، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف:
در برنامه های توسعه اجتماعی، اقتصادی و فرهنگی جمهوری اسلامی ا یران همواره بر منطقی کردن مصرف انرژی ازجمله مصرف آب تأکید شده است. طرح دانش آموزی نجات- معروف به طرح داناب- از سوی آموزش و پرورش و با مشارکت سازمان آب منطقه ایاستان مازندران با هدف ارتقاء دانش آب و نیز مصرف بهینه آب توسط دانش آموزان به اجرا درآمده است. از بین گروه های مختلف اجتماعی،دانش آموزان نقش مهمی در زمینه مصرف آب ایفاء می کنند. با توجه به نقش عوامل اجتماعی و فرهنگی در شکل دهی رفتار دانش آموزان،تحقق حاضر تلاش نمود تا ضمن بررسی وضعیت دانش آب در بین دانش آموزان، به مطالعه و بررسی عوامل اجتماعی- فرهنگی مؤثر بر پیش بینی رفتار مصرف آب آنان نیز بپردازد.
مواد و روش ها:
 از نظر روش‌شناسی، تحقیق حاضر با استفاده از روش پیمایش در میان دانش آموزان دوره‌ متوسطه اول در مناطق شهری بهشهر، نکا، ساری، بهشهر، گلوگاه، آمل و قائم‌شهر در استان مازندران انجام شد. برای انتخاب نمونه‌ها از روش نمونه‌گیری احتمالی  استفاده شد و بر اساس فرمول کوکران، تعداد 501 دانش آموز  به عنوان نمونه مورد بررسی قرار  گرفتند. داده‌های حاصل از تحقیق با استفاده از نرم افزار آماری ویژه علم اجتماعی مورد توصیف و تجزیه‌و تحلیل قرار گرفت.
نتایج و بحث:
 نتایج حاصل از داده‌های تحقیق حاضر نشان دادند که فرض رابطه بین عوامل فرهنگی (دانش محیط زیستی، ارزش محیط زیستی، نگرش نسبت به منابع آب، باورهای دینی) و پیش بینی رفتار مصرف آب دانش آموزان مورد تایید تجربی قرارگرفته است و تنها رابطه دانش محیط زیستی با پیش بینی رفتار مصرف آب تایید نشده است. همچنین، نتایج تحقیق نشان داد که فرض رابطه بین عوامل اجتماعی (مشارکت مدنی) و پیش بینی رفتار مصرف آب دانش آموزان مورد تایید تجربی قرارگرفته است. فرض رابطه بین عوامل نهادی (کنترل رسمی، کنترل غیررسمی) و پیش بینی رفتار مصرف آب دانش آموزان نیز در تحقیق حاضر مورد تایید تجربی قرارگرفته است. نهادها، شیوه‌های اساسی فعالیت اجتماعی هستند که اکثریت اعضای یک جامعه معین از آن‌ها پیروی می‌کنند درواقع شامل هنجارها و ارزش‌هایی هستند که تعداد بسیاری از مردم با آنها همنوایی می‌کنند. آنها شیوه‌های رفتاری هستند که به‌وسیله ضمانت اجرایی نیرومند حمایت می‌شوند و در طول زمان شکل ثابت و پایداری را نیز به همراه دارند. بر این اساس، می‌توان اذعان نمود که متغیرهای نهادی (کنترل رسمی، کنترل غیررسمی) بر پیش بینی رفتار مصرف آب در بین دانش آموزان مؤثر است. در ارتباط با فرضیه تحقیق مبنی بر وجود رابطه بین متغیرهای زمینه‌ای (پایگاه اقتصادی- اجتماعی، سن) و پیش بینی رفتار مصرف آب دانش آموزان، نتایج حاصل از داده‌های این تحقیق رابطه بین متغیرهای زمینه‌ای (پایگاه اقتصادی- اجتماعی) و پیش بینی رفتار مصرف آب دانش آموزان را تایید می‌نماید، اما رابطه سن و پیش بینی رفتار مصرف آب دانش آموزان را مورد تایید تجربی قرار نگرفت.
نتیجه گیری: 
بر اساس یافته های تحقیق حاضر می توان نتیجه گرفت که متغیرهای مستقل باورهای دینی مصرف آب، کنترل غیررسمی، نگرش نسبت به محدودیت آب، ارزش محیط زیستی، کنترل رسمی، مشارکت مدنی و پایگاه اجتماعی با متغیر وابسته رفتار مصرف آب رابطه‌ معنی‌دار داشته‌اند. همچنین متغیر مستقل باورهای دینی مصرف آب، بیشترین همبستگی را با متغیر وابسته رفتار مصرف آب دارد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

An analysis of students’ knowledge and behavior toward water (case study: secondary schools in Mazandaran)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sadegh Salehi 1
  • Hadi Ebrahimi 2

1 Department of Social Sciences, Faculty of Humanities & Social Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Mazandaran, Iran

2 Department of Islamic Knowledge, Faculty of Philosophy and Theology, IRIB University, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction: 
Optimizing energy consumption including water consumption has always been emphasized in all Five-Year Development in Iran. According to Managing Director of Mazandaran Regional Water Authority, said: "We see a lot of changes in the annual flow of rivers in the province, with the average long-term runoff in the rivers of the province is 4500 million cubic meters, which is based on the average The 11-year-old has been reduced to 3900 million cubic meters. He evaluated the precipitation situation during the first two months of the year positively and said: "Compared to last year, about 40 mm of rain was observed, but the river discharge decreased by an average of 39% compared to the index period." He added: "So far, 45% of the volume of reservoirs in the dam has been dewatered. Unfortunately, this rate is about 27% in Shahid Rajaee Dam, which we hope will reach 60%. To resolve the water shortage issue and deal rationally with water problem, the government, has already introduce a project name Danab. This project aims at educating school student with water knowledge and prober behavior. This project believes that of all social groups, school students play significant role to optimize water consumption. Education Organization has already started to apply Danab Project to create and increase students’ knowledge toward water. The organization presume that students’ water consumption behavior will be modified by creasing their water knowledge through this educational program. As such, this study aims to assess students’ water knowledge a well as this knowledge effects on water behavior.
Material and methods:
This project was conducted in Mazandaran province were the public assume there is no waste shortages. This study focused on school students to identify what socio-cultural factors are influencing their water knowledge as well their water consumption behavior. This study benefited survey method. Survey methodology studies the sampling of individual units from a population and associated techniques of survey data collection, such as questionnaire construction and methods for improving the number and accuracy of responses to surveys. Survey methodology includes instruments or procedures that ask one or more questions that may or may not be answered. Having applied survey method, a total of 501 high school students have been selected by using stratified sampling method. The sample were selected across different cities in Mazandaran in 2018. The data was collect via benefiting questionnaire technique and has been processed by using SPSS programme.
Results and discussion:
The results of the current research revealed that there is significant relation between cultural factors and students’ water consumption behavior. The results also showed that the assumed relationship between social factors and water consumption was confirmed empirically. Based on the results of the study, it can be aid that the relationship between institutional factors and students’ water consumption behavior was confirmed. Finally, the results of the study confirmed there was a relationship between water consumption behavior and social back ground of the surveyed students.
Conclusion:
The result of the research showed that environmental values, religious belief, formal control and civic participation have played a significant role to guide students water consumption behavior. The result also indicated that environmental values has played most significant role to contribute students’ water knowledge.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • students
  • Environmental knowledge
  • Water Consumption
  • Mazandaran

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