نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه تنوع زیستی و مدیریت اکوسیستم ها، پژوهشکده علوم محیطی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

2 گروه زیست شناسی، دانشکده علوم و فناوری زیستی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

3 گروه شیلات، دانشکده علوم دامی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ساری، مازندران، ایران

10.29252/envs.18.2.255

چکیده

سابقه و هدف:
معرفی عمدی یا سهوی گونه ­های ماهیان غیربومی به اکوسیستم ­های طبیعی کشور به ­دنبال تأمین هدف­ های آبزی پروری، پرورش ماهیان زینتی و کنترل زیستی بوده است. برخی از این ماهیان غیربومی در محیط ­های آبی طبیعی و مزرعه­ های پرورش ماهی مهاجم شده و پتانسیل آن را دارند که پیامدهای اقتصادی و اکولوژیکی قابل توجه­ی را به ­دنبال داشته باشند. از طرفی ریشه­ کنی گونه ­های ماهیان غیربومی بویژه در محیط­ های طبیعی بزرگ، غیرممکن یا بسیار پرهزینه است. در همین راستا، استفاده از مدل­ هایی که قابلیت شناسایی و غربال گری گونه­ های غیربومی که پتانسیل مهاجم شدن در زیستگاه­ های معرفی شده را دارند در حال افزایش است. هدف این پژوهش، ارزیابی پتانسیل مهاجم شدن گونه ماهی تیلاپیای شکم قرمز Coptodon zillii در صورت ورود به تالاب بین ­المللی انزلی است.
مواد و روش ­ها:
از مدل غربال گری تهاجمی گونه های غیربومی آبزی1 برای ارزیابی مهاجم شدن احتمالی تیلاپیای شکم قرمز در صورت معرفی استفاده شده است. این مدل قادر است گونه ­های آبزی غیربومی از جمله ماهیان غیربومی را با توجه به حد آستانه منطقه ارزیابی در دو گروه مهاجم یا غیرمهاجم احتمالی قرار دهد. همچنین تطابق اقلیمی بین گستره بومی تیلاپیای شکم قرمز و تالاب انزلی با سیستم اقلیمی کوپن-گایگر2 و نرم افزار کلایمچ3 انجام شده است. در ارزیابی تغییرات اقلیم در مدل AS - ISK از سناریوی احتمالی تغییر اقلیم آینده بر اساس مطالعات مربوطه موجود استفاده شده است.
نتایج و بحث:
خروجی ارزیابی با مدل AS - ISK عدد خطر 44 بود که بالاتر از 75/11 حد آستانه مدل برای تالاب انزلی بوده و بیانگر بالا بودن پتانسیل مهاجم شدن تیلاپیای شکم قرمز در صورت ورود به تالاب انزلی است. همچنین تطابق اقلیمی بین زیستگاه اصلی تیلاپیای شکم قرمز و تالاب انزلی با استفاده از سیستم اقلیمی کوپن-گایگر بالا بود و حداقل یکی از زیستگاه­ های بومی تیلاپیای شکم قرمز در این سیستم در طبقه اقلیمی مشابه با تالاب انزلی قرار دارد. خروجی مدل Climatch برای این گونه 0.87 به­ دست آمد که نشان دهنده تطابق بالای اقلیمی بین گستره بومی این گونه و منطقه ارزیابی – تالاب انزلی - بود. ارزیابی تغییرات اقلیم مدل AS - ISK در نتیجه نهایی ارزیابی، اثر افزایشی داشت. فاکتورهایی که در نتیجه ارزیابی تیلاپیای شکم قرمز بیشترین تأثیر را داشتند شامل تطابق اقلیمی، تغییر اقلیم احتمالی، ویژگی ­های زیست شناختی و وضعیت مهاجم شدن آن در دیگر منطقه­ های خارج از گستره بومی ­اش بودند. مقایسه نتایج استفاده از این مدل برای گونه غیربومی تیلاپیای شکم قرمز در تالاب انزلی و چند منطقه دیگر در کشورهای همسایه نشان داد که این گونه غیربومی در این منطقه ­ها هم از پتانسیل بالای مهاجم شدن برخوردار بود.
نتیجه ­گیری:
با توجه به اینکه گونه ­های ماهیان غیربومی همواره مورد توجه برای توسعه آبزی پروری در کشور هستند. برای اجتناب از پیامدهای زیانبار محیط زیستی یک ابزار ارزیابی سریع نیاز است. ارزیابی پتانسیل مهاجم شدن گونه ­های ماهیان غیربومی با مدل AS -ISK می ­تواند برای پیش ­بینی پتانسیل مهاجم شدن ماهیان غیربومی در حوضه آبریز تالاب انزلی و دیگر منطقه ­ها به­ منظور کمک به مدیران حفاظت، تصمیم ­گیران و سیاست گذاران طرح ­های آبزی پروری مورد استفاده قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Risk assessment of the potential invasiveness of Coptodon zillii (Gervais, 1848) in Anzali Wetland using AS-ISK Model

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Daryoush Moghaddas 1
  • Asghar Abdoli 1
  • Bahram Hassanzade Kiabi 2
  • Hossein Rahmani 3

1 Department of Biodiversity and Ecosystems Management, Environmental Sciences Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Animal Sciences and Marine Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Fisheries, Sari Agriculture Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Mazandaran, Iran

چکیده [English]

 Introduction:
The intentional and unintentional introduction of non-native fish species to the aquatic ecosystems of Iran has occurred with purposes such as enhancing aquaculture, ornamentation, biological control, and research. Some of them cause or have the potential to cause, significant environmental and socio-economic impacts on aquatic ecosystems and/or fish farms. The eradication of non-native fishes is impossible or very costly, especially in large areas. Screening and identifying the potential invasiveness of species are being increasingly used all over the world. The main aim of the present research was to assess the potential invasiveness of redbelly Tilapia Coptodon zillii in Anzali international wetland.
Material and methods:
Aquatic Species Invasiveness Screening Kit (AS-ISK) was used to identify redbelly Tilapia Coptodon zillii as a non-native fish that may pose a high potential risk of becoming invasion in Anzali Wetland. The model is able to discriminate between invasive and non-invasive aquatic organisms including non-native fishes by risk area-related threshold value. Also, the Köppen-Geiger climate system and Climatch software were used to match the climate between the native range of redbelly Tilapia and Anzali Wetland. The projected future climate change scenario was taken from relevant studies to carry out Climate Change Assessment (CCA) of the AS-ISK.
Results and discussion:
 The output of the AS-ISK was 44 for redbelly Tilapia that was higher than the AS-ISK threshold value of the risk assessment area, which meant that the species pose a potential risk of becoming invasive in Anzali wetland. There was a high climate-mating between the native range of redbelly Tilapia and the assessed area when the Köppen-Geiger climate system was used. At least one native habitat of redbelly Tilapia in the system was in the same climate category as the studied area. Also, the Climatch model output was 0.87 that shows a high climate matching for the non-native fish. The CCA had an increasing effect on the total score of the AS-ISK. The factors that increased the AS-ISK score were climate-mating, probable climate change, biological attributes, and invasiveness history of other places that the species was introduced. The comparison of the results of this study and other relevant studies that used AS-ISK to assess potential invasiveness of redbelly Tilapia showed that the species had the potential of becoming an invader in Anzali Wetland as well as some other areas around the country.
Conclusion:
While non-native fishes are frequently used to enhance aquaculture in the country, a rapid assessment tool is required to avoid nuisance environmental impacts. The AS-ISK can be reliably used as a tool to predict the potential risk of becoming invasive in Anzali Wetland and elsewhere to be used by conservation managers, decision-makers, and policymakers in the aquaculture development plans.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Risk Assessment
  • AS-ISK
  • Invasive species
  • Redbelly Tilapia
  • Anzali Wetland

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