نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ایلام، ایلام، ایران

2 گروه علوم کشاورزی و جنگل، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه توسکیا، ایتالیا

چکیده

سابقه و هدف:
گرد و خاک یک آلاینده جوی است که به ­عنوان یکی از عمده‌ترین مشکل­ های محیطی در نواحی مختلف جهان به ­شمار می‌رود. این پدیده بویژه در بخش‌های کشاورزی، سلامت و حمل و نقل مشکل‌ساز می ­باشد. پدیده گرد و خاک سالانه سبب مشکل ­های زیادی برای کشاورزی و سلامت انسان در ایران می‌شود به­ طوری که پرداختن به پیامدهای منفی این پدیده باید به ­طور ضروری مورد توجه قرار گیرد. از این رو، این آزمایش با هدف کمی سازی اثر گرد و خاک بر عملکرد و رشد لوبیا چیتی رقم کوشا و علف‌های هرز سلمه تره و سوروف و رقابت آن­ها انجام شد.
مواد و روش ها:
این آزمایش در قالب طرح سری‌های جانشینی، به ­صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح کاملا تصادفی با سه تکرار در گلخانه دانشکده‌ی کشاورزی دانشگاه ایلام از ماه آبان تا اسفند سال 1396 انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل تیمار گرد و خاک به­ صورت مصنوعی و بدون گرد و خاک، دو نوع علف ‌هرز باریک برگ (سوروف1) و پهن‌برگ (سلمه تره2) و پنج نسبت تراکمی لوبیا و علف هرز با روش جایگزینی با نسبت اختلاط (100 درصد لوبیا)، (75 درصد لوبیا + 25 درصد علف هرز)، (50 درصد لوبیا + 50 درصد علف هرز)، (25 درصد لوبیا + 75 درصد علف هرز) و (100 درصد علف هرز) بودند. در این پژوهش سرعت فتوسنتز، محتوی کلروفیل a، b و کل، کارتنوئید، عملکرد زیست توده گیاه زراعی، عملکرد زیست توده علف هرز و صفات زایشی شامل تعداد غلاف در بوته، وزن هزار دانه، عملکرد دانه لوبیا اندازه‌گیری شدند.
نتایج و بحث:
نتایج نشان داد که سرعت فتوسنتز، کلروفیل a، کلروفیل b، کلروفیل کل، کارتنوئید، تعداد غلاف در بوته، وزن هزار دانه، زیست توده و عملکرد دانه لوبیا و همچنین زیست توده علف‌های هرز به ­طور معنی‌داری تحت تأثیر تیمار گرد و خاک قرار می­ گیرند به ­طوری که اثرهای متقابل بین تیمار گرد و خاک، نوع علف هرز و نسبت‌های تراکمی بین لوبیا و علف‌های هرز برای تمام صفات اندازه‌ گیری شده، اختلاف معنی‌داری از نظر آماری نشان داد. همچنین با افزایش نسبت تراکمی علف‌های هرز صفات لوبیا هم بیشتر تحت تأثیر علف‌های هرز قرار گرفته و این اثرها با اعمال تیمار گرد و خاک نیز تشدید گردید. گرد وخاک به­ طور متوسط سبب 39.7% کاهش عملکرد و 52.8% زیست توده لوبیا شد. عملکرد لوبیا در نسبت تراکمی 50% در حالت رقابت با سلمه تره و در شرایط بدون گرد و خاک و با آن به ­ترتیب 7.8 و 4.7 گرم در بوته بود در حالی که میزان­ های یاد شده در حالت رقابت با سوروف به­ترتیب 16.9 و 8.4 گرم در بوته بود. از طرفی دیگر نتایج نشان داد که سوروف به­ عنوان علف‌هرز باریک برگ کمتر از سلمه تره به ­عنوان علف‌هرز پهن‌برگ تحت تأثیر پدیده گرد و خاک قرار می‌گیرد به ­طوری که کاهش زیست توده به ­دلیل گرد و خاک در سلمه تره و سوروف به ­ترتیب 10.6 و 7.1% درصد درمقایسه با تیمارهای بدون گرد و خاک بود. به ­طور کلی لوبیا بیشتر ازعلف‌های هرز تحت تأثیر پدیده گرد و خاک می­ گیرد.
نتیجه گیری:
رشد و عملکرد لوبیا به نحو معنی‌داری تحت تأثیر رقابت علف‌های هرز قرار گرفته و نیز اثر رقابتی علف هرز سلمه‌تره بیشتر از سوروف بوده است. همچنین پدیده گرد و خاک به ­طور معنی‌داری رشد لوبیا و علف‌های هرز سلمه تره و سورف را تحت تأثیر قرار می ­دهد ولی اثر آن روی علف هرز سلمه تره بیشتر از سوروف بوده است. دلیل آن ممکن است مربوط به مورفولوژی گیاه بوده باشد، به ­طوری که لوبیا و سلمه تره با دارا بودن برگ‌های پهن‌تر نسبت به سوروف میزان گرد و خاک بیشتری دریافت کرده باشند. بنابراین پدیده گرد و خاک سبب کاهش رشد و عملکرد گیاه زراعی شده و همچنین تعادل رقابتی بین گیاه زراعی و علف‌های هرز را نیز تحت تأثیر قرار دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Study the effect of soil dust on the competitiveness between bean (Phaseolud vulgaris cv. Kosha) and Chenolodium album (L.) and Echinochloa cruss-galli (L.) P. Beauv.

نویسندگان [English]

  • Elahe Ghasemi 1
  • Alireza Taab 1
  • Emanuele Radicetti 2

1 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran

2 Department of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences (DAFNE). University of Tuscia, Italy

چکیده [English]

Introduction:
Dust is an atmospheric pollutant that is considered as one of the major environmental problems all over the world. This phenomenon is problematic, especially in agriculture, health, and transportation sections. Dust causes considerable environmental problems for agriculture and human health in Iran every year and so attention must be paid to the negative consequences of this phenomenon. Therefore, this study was conducted to quantify the effects of dust on growth and yield of red bean, weeds growth, and the competitive balance between weeds and the crop.
Material and methods:
A greenhouse experiment was conducted in a replacement series based on a complete randomized design with three replicates in Ilam University, Ilam, from late October 2017 to early March 2018. The treatments consisted of soil dust (with and without), two weed species (Echinochloa crus-galli and Chenopodium album), and mixtures of 100% crop, 75% crop+25% weed, 50% crop+50% weed, 25% crop+75%weed, and 100% weed. The speed of photosynthesis, amount of chlorophyll α, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and carotenoids content of leaves, number of pod per plant, one thousand seed weight, and crop seed yield, crop and weed biomass were measured.
Results and discussion:
The results showed that the speed of photosynthesis amount of chlorophyll α, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll content of leaves, carotenoids, number of pod per plant, one thousand seed weight, biomass, and seed yield of the red bean as well as biomass of weeds were significantly affected by dust. In addition, the effect of weeds on crops was increased by an increase in the weed proportion in the mixtures, which was worsening by the dust. The dust caused a 39.7% reduction in the yield and 52.8% in biomass of bean on average. The bean yield (gr/plant) in the 50% mixture in competition with C. album with and without dust effect were 7.5 and 4.7 gr/plant, respectively, while the corresponding values for E. crus-galli were 16.9 and 8.4 gr/plant , respectively.  On the other hand, E. crus-galli as a narrow leave species was less affected by dust than C. album as a broad leave species and thus biomass reduction due to dust in C. album and E. crus-galli were 10.6% and 7.1% in comparison with the control , respectively. Moreover, the red bean was affected by dust more than weeds.
Conclusion:
The growth and yield of red bean were significantly affected by competition with weeds and also the competitive effect of C. album was more than E. crus-galli. In addition, the dust had significant effects on the growth of red bean and weeds (C. album more than E. crus-galli). This might be due to the morphological characteristics of each species, because the broader leaves of the red bean and C. album may have caused more absorption of dust particles. In general, the dust phenomenon caused a reduction in crop growth and yield and also affected the competitive balance between weeds and crops.                    

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Weed
  • Competition
  • Crop
  • Dust
  • Pollutant

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