نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه برنامه ریزی، مدیریت و آموزش محیط زیست، دانشکده محیط زیست، پردیس دانشکده های فنی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف:
ارزیابی اثرهای اجتماعی ابزاری راهبردی برای مدیریت فعالیت‌های اجتماعی مرتبط با توسعه با هدف کاهش هزینه‌های اقتصادی، اجتماعی و محیط‌زیستی است. از آنجایی که طرح‌های توسعه اثرها و پیامدهای غیر قابل انکاری را بر ویژگی‌های اجتماعی، اقتصادی و محیط‌ زیستی یک منطقه وارد می‌آورند، بنابراین شناخت این پیامدها و مدیریت آن‌ها افزون بر کاهش تأثیرهای منفی و افزایش پیامدهای مثبت، می‌تواند نقش مؤثری در پیش‌برد طرح و پایداری آن داشته باشد. پژوهش حاضر با هدف ارزیابی اثرهای اجتماعی پروژه‌ها و سازه‌های دریایی، اثرهای طرح احداث بندر چمخاله را بر سنجه‌های کیفیت زندگی، سرمایه اجتماعی، اقتصاد و محیط‌ زیست مورد ارزیابی قرار داد.
مواد و روش‌ها:
پژوهش حاضر از نظر هدف، کاربردی و از منظر روش توصیفی - تحلیلی و از نوع تحقیق همبستگی است. جامعه آماری پژوهش، 8840 نفر جمعیت شهر چاف و چمخاله در سال 1395 بودند که با استفاده از فرمول کوکران1، 400 نمونه برآورد شده و به روش نمونه‌گیری تصادفی طبقه‌ای با انتساب متناسب توزیع گردید. ابزار پژوهش، پرسشنامه محقق ساخت بود که روایی آن در دو بخش روایی محتوا و روایی سازه و پایایی آن با ضریب آلفای کرونباخ2 به میزان 75/0 مورد تأیید قرار گرفت. در نهایت داده‌های حاصل از پرسشنامه، با استفاده از روش‌های تحلیل‌ توصیفی و تحلیل‌ همبستگی در نرم‌افزارهای SPSS 20 و LISREL 8.80 انجام شد.
نتایج و بحث:
نتایج حاصل از تحلیل عاملی تأییدی نشان می‌دهد که در بخش کیفیت زندگی، اثرهای بندر بر سنجه کیفیت زندگی 5.69 بوده که نشان دهنده تأثیر مثبت پروژه در این بخش است. بیشترین تأثیرات این بخش، بهبود وضعیت گردشگری با تأثیر 7.18 و ایجاد فرصت‌های شغلی جدید با تأثیر 7.01 می‌باشد. در بخش سرمایه اجتماعی، تأثیر احداث بندر بر این بخش 6.78 بوده که نشان دهنده تأثیر مثبت پروژه در این بخش است. مهمترین تأثیر این بخش نیز افزایش مشارکت مردم در برنامه‌های توسعه منطقه با تأثیر 6.20 است. در بخش اقتصادی، تأثیر احداث بندر در این بخش، 6.48 برآورد شده که نشان دهنده تأثیر مثبت پروژه در این بخش است. در بخش محیط‌زیست، تأثیر پروژه بر این بخش 2.90 به‌دست آمد که نشان دهنده تأثیر منفی پروژه بر این بخش خواهد بود که ایجاد آلودگی هوا در منطقه با ضریب تأثیر 5.61 و آلودگی آب دریا و تغییر کیفیت آب رودخانه‌ها و آب‌های ساحلی با ضریب تأثیر 5.46 از مهمترین اثرهای منفی احداث بندر بر محیط‌زیست است. از آنجا که در پایداری طرح‌های توسعه، پنج سرمایه اجتماعی، انسانی، مالی، زیرساختی (فیزیکی) و طبیعی بایستی به­طور هماهنگ و متعادل ایجاد و یا بهبود یابند، بنابراین لازم است تا ضمن کاهش اثرهای منفی، اثرهای مثبت طرح نیز تقویت گردد تا اجرای پروژه بتواند گامی در راستای بهبود اوضاع اجتماعی، اقتصادی و محیط‌زیستی منطقه باشد.
نتیجه گیری:
اثرهای اجتماعی پروژه‌های احداث بندر نیز به اندازه اثرهای اقتصادی آن­ها دارای اهمیت بوده و تأثیر مستقیمی بر سرنوشت پروژه و دستیابی به اهداف آن دارد. با توجه به اینکه اینگونه پروژه‌ها اثرهای قابل توجهی بر زندگی مردم دارند، بنابراین ارزیابی اثرهای اجتماعی، کمک می‌کند تا مردم از اثرهای طرح‌ها آگاهی یابند، که این آگاهی به توسعه‌ی اجتماعی، افزایش کارآمدی توسعه و کاهش اثرهای منفی طرح‌های توسعه منجر شده و حرکتی به سوی توسعه‌ی پایدار خواهد بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Social impact assessment of marine projects and structures (the case of Chamkhaleh Port construction project)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Roya Ramezani Kiasejmahaleh
  • Mohammad Javad Amiri
  • Lobat Zebardast

Department of Environmental Education, Management and Planning, School of Environment, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction:
The social impact assessment is a strategic tool for managing development-related social activities aimed at reducing economic, social, and environmental costs. Since development plans incorporate undeniable impacts and consequences on the social, economic and environmental characteristics of an area, recognizing and managing these impacts can play an important role in promoting and sustaining the projects in addition to reducing negative effects and enhancing positive outcomes. Aiming to assess the social impacts of marine projects and structures, this study investigated the impacts of Chamkhaleh Port construction on the quality of life, social capital, economics, and environmental indicators.
Material and methods:
The present study was applied, descriptive-analytical and correlational research. The statistical population was 8840 people from Chaf and Chamkhaleh city in 2016. The sample size was estimated 400 using Cochran formula and distributed by stratified random sampling. The research tool was a researcher-made questionnaire, the validity of which was confirmed by content validity and construct validity. Also, its reliability was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.750. Finally, the data obtained from the questionnaire were analyzed using descriptive and correlation analysis in SPSS 20 and LISREL 8.80 software.
Results and discussion:
The results of the confirmatory factor analysis showed that the impact of the port on the quality of life index was 5.69, which indicated the positive impact of the project in this section. The greatest impact on this sector was the improvement of the tourism situation with an impact of 7.8 and then new job opportunities with the impact of 7.01. In the social capital section, the most important impact was the increase in the participation of people in the development plans of the region with an impact of 6.20. The impact of the construction of the port on the economic section was 6.48, which indicated the positive impact of the project in this section. The project's effect on the environmental sector was 2.90, which indicated the negative effect of the project on this sector. The creation of air pollution in the region with an impact coefficient of 5.61 and pollution of seawater and changes in water quality in rivers and coastal waters with an impact factor of 5.466 would have negative effects on the environment. Because in the sustainability of developmental projects social, human, financial, infrastructure (physical), and natural assets must be developed or improved, it is necessary to enhance the positive effects of the plan in order to reduce the negative impacts. Project implementation can be a step towards improving the social, economic, and environmental conditions of the region.
Conclusion:
The social impacts of the construction projects are as important as their economic impacts and have a direct impact on the fate of the project and the achievement of its goal. Since such projects have significant impacts on people's lives, social impact assessment and identifying the impacts helps people become aware of the effects of projects, leading to social development, increasing development efficiency and reducing the negative impacts of development plans and a move towards sustainable development.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Social Impact Assessment
  • Port construction
  • Stakeholders
  • Confirmatory Factor Analysis
  • Chamkhaleh

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