نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

2 گروه علوم تربیتی و روان شناسی، دانشکده زبان و ادبیات فارسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد چالوس، چالوس، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف:
آبزی‌پروری به­ عنوان یک فعالیت کشاورزی است که می‌تواند در تأمین نیازهای غذایی و سلامت جمعیت جهان نقش مهمی را ایفا کند. ولی این صنعت در استان گیلان با مشکل­ های محیط­زیستی گسترده­ای همچون استفاده­ی بیش از حد از هورمون­ ها و آنتی بیوتیک­ ها، استفاده از کودهای غیربهداشتی و استفاده ­ی بیش از حد از کود، رهاسازی پساب مزرعه­ های پرورش ماهی و برخوردار نبودن مزرعه ­ها از شناسنامه ­ی بهداشتی مواجه است که آن را به سوی ناپایداری سوق می­ دهند. سؤالاتی که وجود دارد این است که چگونه می­ توان آبزی­پروران را به انجام رفتارهای متناسب با محیط­زیست تشویق کرد؟ چه عواملی در تشویق آبزی­ پروران و بر انجام رفتارهای محیط­زیست­گرایانه مؤثر هستند؟ بنابراین با تلفیق تئوری رفتار برنامه ­ریزی شده و مدل پذیرش فناوری دیویس که به بررسی عوامل مؤثر در انجام رفتار می­ پردازند، چارچوب نظری پژوهش برای بررسی عوامل مؤثر بر رفتار محیط­ زیست­ گرایانه ­ی آبزی ­پروران استان گیلان بیان شد.
مواد و روش ­ها:
پژوهش حاضر از نظر پارادایمی، کمی و از نظر هدف، کاربردی و از جهت تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات، توصیفی- همبستگی و علی-  رابطه ­ای است. جامعه ­ی آماری پژوهش را دو گروه پرورش­ دهندگان ماهیان گرمابی (5830 نفر) و پرورش ­دهندگان ماهیان سردآبی استان (200 نفر) تشکیل می ­دهند. از پرورش ­دهندگان ماهیان گرمابی 353 نفر و از پرورش ­دهندگان ماهیان سردآبی 12 نفر با استفاده از روش نمونه­ گیری تصادفی طبقه­ ای با انتساب متناسب به­ عنوان نمونه ­ی آماری انتخاب شدند. برای جمع ­آوری اطلاعات مورد نیاز، پرسشنامه­ ای محقق­ ساخته  در نه بخش تدوین شد. روایی پرسشنامه از طریق پانل متخصصان و پایایی آن با کمک آلفای کرونباخ تأیید شد (89.0 ≥ α≥ 0.73). بمنظور تعیین اعتبار سازه و برازش مدل طراحی شده، از روش تحلیل عاملی تأییدی و مدل­ سازی معادلات ساختاری استفاده شد.
نتایج و بحث:
نتایج نشان داد که متغیرهای به ­کار رفته در پژوهش، الگوی مناسبی برای بروز رفتار محیط­زیست­ گرایانه­ ی آبزی­ پروران استان گیلان هستند. عامل­ های فردی با درک مفید بودن و درک آسانی کاربرد، رابطه ­ی مثبتی را دارند. عامل ­های اجتماعی نیز با درک مفید بودن رابطه­ ی مثبت دارند اما با درک آسانی کاربرد رابطه ­ی منفی و معکوسی را دارند. درک مفید بودن و درک آسانی کاربرد با نگرش نسبت به آن رفتار رابطه­ ی مثبتی را دارند. همچنین درک مفید بودن با مقدار ضریب بتای بیشتر رابطه­ ی مؤثرتری را با نگرش نسبت به یک رفتار دارد. نگرش، هنجار ذهنی و کنترل رفتاری درک شده بر قصد رفتاری و رفتار فرد مؤثر هستند. متغیر نگرش بیشترین رابطه­ ی مثبت را با قصد رفتاری دارد. درک مفید بودن به شکل مستقیم نیز با قصد رفتاری، رابطه­ ی مثبت و معنی­ داری را دارد. قصد رفتاری نیز با ضریب بتا 78.0 ارتباط مثبتی را با رفتار محیط­زیست ­گرایانه آبزی­ پروران استان دارد و این عامل در کنار کنترل رفتاری درک شده 84 % از تغییرات رفتار را تبیین می کند.
نتیجه­ گیری:
نتایج همچنین نشان داد اگر فردی رفتار محیط­زیست ­گرایانه را مفید بداند و از سویی دیگر به­ کارگیری آن رفتار، آسان و قابل فهم نیز باشد در نتیجه موجب بهبود نگرش محیط­زیستی او نیز می ­شود. در مجموع بررسی مجدد دوره­ های برگزار شده و تجدید نظر در مطالب بیان شده و نحوه­ ی مناسب و مطلوب بیان مطالب باید مورد توجه مسئولان ترویجی شیلات استان قرار بگیرد. حمایت­ های تسهیلاتی و فنی می­ تواند موجب ایجاد حس استقلال و آزادی عمل در آبزی ­پروران بمنظور انجام رفتارهای محیط­زیست­ گرایانه شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Factors affecting the pro-environmental behavior of aquaculture farmers in Guilan Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Ghorbani Piralidehi 1
  • Azadeh Ghorbani Piralidehi 2

1 Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Razi, Kermanshah, Iran

2 Department of Educational Science and Psychology, Faculty of Persian Language and Literature, Islamic Azad University of Chalous, Chalous, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction:
Aquaculture is an agricultural activity that can play an important role in supplying the nutritional needs and health of the world's population. Yet, this industry in the Guilan Province has widespread environmental problems that lead to instability such as the excessive use of hormones, antibiotics, and unhealthy fertilizers, releasing fish farms waste, and the lack of health certificate of farms. So, there are questions like how can aquaculture farmers be encouraged to act appropriately towards the environment? Which factors are effective in encouraging aquaculture farmers to have pro-environmental behaviors? So, using the planned behavior theory and technology acceptance model of Davis, the theoretical framework of this research was presented to investigate the factors affecting the pro-environmental behavior of aquaculture farmers in Guilan Province.
Material and methods:
The statistical population of the study consisted of two groups: hydrothermal fish farmers (5830 people), and cold water fish farmers (200 people). Overall, From 353 and 12 individuals from hydrothermal and cold water fish farmers, respectively, were selected as samples using the stratified random sampling method. To collect the required information, a researcher-made questionnaire was developed in nine sections. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed through a panel of experts and its reliability was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha (0.73≤ α ≤ 0.89). Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to determine the structural validity and fitting of the designed model.
Results and discussion:
The results showed that the variables used in the research were good models for the occurrence of pro-environmental behavior in aquaculture farmers of the Guilan Province. Individual factors had a positive relationship with the perceived usefulness and easy understanding of the application. Also, social factors had a positive relationship with the perceived usefulness, but it had a negative and inverse relationship with an easy understanding of the application. Perceived usefulness and the easy understanding of the application to the attitude toward that behavior had a positive relationship. Also, perceived usefulness with more beta coefficients had a more effective relationship with attitude toward one's behavior. Attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control were effective on behavioral intention and behavior. The attitude variable had the most positive relationship with behavioral intention. Perceived usefulness had a positive and meaningful relationship with behavioral intention. Behavioral intention, with a beta coefficient of 0.78, had a positive relationship with the pro-environmental behavior of aquaculture farmers in the province, and this factor, with perceived behavioral control, explained 84% of behavioral changes.
Conclusion:
Our findings showed that if one considers the pro-environmental behavior useful and also finds it easy and understandable, it will improve their attitude toward the environment. In total, revising the courses and the content presented therein, and also the appropriate and desirable way of presenting them should be considered by the extensional authorities of the province's fisheries. Facilities and technical supports can create a sense of independence and freedom of action in aquaculture farmers for having pro-environmental behaviors.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Pro-environmental behavior
  • Environmental attitude
  • Sustainable aquaculture
  • Technology acceptance model of Davis
  • Theory of planned behavior

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