نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زیست شناسی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران

2 گروه مرتع و آبخیزداری، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ایلام، ایلام، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف:
تنوع زیستی تنها شامل تعداد و وفور گونه‏ ها نیست، بلکه گوناگونی در کارکردهای هر گونه را شامل می ‏شود که بوسیله سنجه‎های تنوع کارکرد اندازه‏ گیری می ‏شود. از سویی دیگر، تغییرکاربری زمین‎ها و چرای دام دو مورد از مهمترین عامل‎ها تاثیرگذار بر تنوع زیستی و خدمات اکوسیستم هستند. بنابراین تحقیق حاضر با هدف بررسی تاثیر جنگل‎کاری و چرای دام بر سنجه‎های تنوع کارکرد در منطقه چشمه دلاو در غرب استان خراسان شمالی انجام شد.
مواد و روش­ ها:
برای اندازه‏ گیری تنوع کارکرد از سنجه‏ های مبتنی بر یک ویژگی (میانگین وزنی جامعه) و مبتنی بر چند ویژگی (غنای کارکرد ، یکنواختی کارکرد ، واگرایی کارکرد ، پراکنش کارکرد و سنجه تنوع کارکرد رائو) در بسته آماری "FD" در نرم افزار "3.3.1.R" استفاده گردید. برای مقایسه تنوع در تیمارهای مورد مطالعه از تجزیه واریانس یکطرفه و آزمون تکمیلی دانکن استفاده شد.
نتایج و بحث:
نتایج نشان داد که چرای دام به همراه جنگل‎کاری دارای اثرهای مختلفی بر روی سنجه‎های تنوع کارکردی است. بر اساس نتایج، غنای کارکردی و سنجه تنوع کارکرد رائو و همچنین سنجه ‏های میانگین وزنی ارتفاع و فرم زیستی تروفیت در منطقه ‏های مورد مطالعه دارای اختلاف معنی‏ داری بودند. بیشترین مقادیر سنجه غنای کارکردی، تنوع کارکردی رائو و میانگین وزنی ارتفاع مربوط به منطقه‎های تحت چرای دام بود. این نتیجه نشان می‎دهد برای کاهش رقابت بین گیاهان و به حداکثر رسیدن کارکرد در یک اکوسیستم، وجود حداقلی از تنش (چرا) لازم است. همچنین بیشتر بودن سنجه میانگین وزنی ارتفاع در کاربری تحت چرا تایید کننده وجود ارتباط مثبت بین غنای کارکرد و سنجه میانگین وزنی است. از طرفی دیگر، بیشترین مقدار سنجه میانگین وزنی فرم رویشی تروفیت در کاربری عدم چرا-جنگل‎کاری مشاهده شد که در ارتباط با شرایط نامساعد محیطی از قبیل رقابت بالا (بدلیل نبود چرای دام) و مداخلات انسانی (جنگل‏ کاری) بود.
نتیجه ­گیری:
استفاده از سنجه‎های تنوع کارکرد به عنوان سنجه ­ای از تنوع زیستی که افزون بر اینکه فروانی گونه‏ ها، ویژگی ‏های کارکردی آن­ها را نیز مد نظر قرار می ‏دهد، ابزارهای مفیدی در بررسی تاثیر عامل‎های مختلف بر تنوع زیستی و کارکرد اکوسیستم ‏های نیز می‏ باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of grazing and forestation on functional diversity indices: a case study of Cheshmeh Dalav, Northern Khorasan

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohabat Nadaf 1
  • Reza Omidipour 2

1 Department of Biology, Payame Noor University (PNU), Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Rangeland and Watershed Management, Faculty of Agriculture, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction:
Biodiversity includes not only the species number and their abundance but also the differences in the functions of any species, which is measured by the functional diversity indices. On the other hand, land-use change and grazing are two important factors affecting biodiversity and ecosystem services. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of grazing and forestation on functional diversity indices at Cheshmeh Delav in the western part of Northern Khorasan Province, Iran.
Material and methods:
To measure the functional diversity, the single-trait indices (community-weighted mean; CWM) and also the multiple-trait indices (functional richness, functional evenness, functional divergence, functional dispersion, Rao quadratic diversity) were used and measured by the "FD" statistical package in "R.3.3.1" software. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan’s test was used to compare the mean diversity.
Results and discussion:
The results showed that grazing and forestation have different effects on functional diversity indices. Based on the results, functional richness, Rao index, CWM of height and therophyte had a significant difference in the studied areas. The highest values of functional richness, Rao and CWM of the height index were related to grazing areas. Therefore, the low levels of disturbance factors such as grazing are necessary to reduce competition between plants and an increase in ecosystem function. As CWM of height was the highest at grazing sites, there was a positive relationship between functional richness and CWM. On the other hand, the maximum value of the CWM of therophyte life form was observed in the ungrazing – forestation site due to environmental adverse conditions such as high competition (due to lack of grazing) and disturbance (forestation).
Conclusion:
Using functional diversity indices as an index of biodiversity that considers not only species abundance, but also functional traits was an effective mean in the study of the effects of different factors on biodiversity and the function of different ecosystems. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • biodiversity
  • Functional richness
  • Land use change
  • Rao diversity

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