نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه تنوع زیستی و مدیریت اکوسیستم‏ها، پژوهشکده علوم محیطی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

2 گروه زیست شناسی و زیست فناوری دریا و آبزیان، دانشکده علوم و فناوری زیستی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

3 گروه علوم محیط زیست، دانشکده علوم، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف:
امروزه برای ارزیابی کیفیت آب و طبقه ‏بندی وضعیت اکولوژیکی رودخانه‏ ها، سنجه‏ های زیادی برمبنای تغییر­های ساختار اکولوژیک گونه ‏ها گسترش پیدا کرده ­اند. هدف از این مطالعه ارزیابی وضعیت اکولوژیک، بیان نحوه تاثیر کاربری زمین ­ها و سنجش کارایی متداول ‏ترین سنجه‏ های اکولوژیک برای ماهیان و ماکروبنتوزها در ارزیابی زیستی رودخانه‏ جاجرود می ‏باشد.
مواد و روش ­ها:
در مطالعه حاضر، نمونه‌برداری از آب، ماکروبنتوزها و ماهیان در 10 ایستگاه درآبان ماه سال1394 انجام گردید. پارامترهای فیزیکی، شیمیایی و زیستی شامل دما، کدورت، سرعت و عمق آب، اسیدیته، هدایت الکتریکی، BOD5، نیترات، آمونیوم، فسفات، اکسیژن محلول و کلی­فرم مدفومی در محل یا پس از نمونه­ برداری مورد اندازه ­گیری قرار گرفتند. نمونه ‏برداری ماکروبنتوزها با استفاده از سوربر سمپلر با سه تکرار در هر ایستگاه صورت گرفت و ماهیان نیز  با استفاده از دستگاه الکتروشوکر نمونه ­برداری شدند. بمنظور ارزیابی یکپارچگی رودخانه جاجرود از سنجه‏ های مختلف فیزیکی و شیمیایی، ماکروبنتوزها و ماهیان استفاده شد. همچنین برای تحلیل ارتباط ماکروبنتوزها و ماهیان با متغیرهای فیزیکی، شیمیایی و زیستی از آزمون تحلیل تطبیقی متعارف (CCA) استفاده گردید.
نتایج و بحث:
درمجموع، 481 عدد ماهی شامل 8 گونه صید و تعداد کل ماکروبنتوزها 2435 عدد از 15 خانواده شمارش شد. بیشترین و کمترین تعداد ماهیان صید شده بترتیب از گونه سگ ‏ماهی برگ (Oxynoemacheilus bergianus) و سگ ‏ماهی تیغه ­دار غربی (Paracobitis malapterura) بود. بیشترین درصد فراوانی کل ماکروبنتوزها متعلق به خانواده Baetidae از راسته Ephemeroptera و کمترین درصد فراوانی به Polycentropodidae از راسته ‏Trichoptera تعلق داشت. نتایج آزمون تحلیل تطبیقی متعارف (CCA)، سنجه EPT/CHIR را برای ماکروبنتوزها بهتر از دیگر سنجه ­‏ها برای تعیین سلامت اکولوژیکی آب بیان کرد. از طرف دیگر، سنجه یکپارچگی اکولوژیکی کار (KBI) برای ماهیان بخوبی در اکوسیستم جاجرود، قابل استفاده است.
نتیجه ­گیری:
این مطالعه، اولین مطالعه ‏ای است که با بکارگیری همزمان سنجه ماهیان و ماکروبنتوزها همراه با پارامترهای فیزیکی و شیمیایی آب، وضعیت اکولوژیکی اکوسیستم رودخانه جاجرود را ارزیابی می ‏کند. از یافته­ های این مطالعه می ­توان به این نتیجه رسید که فاضلاب‌های شهری- روستایی، زهاب کشاورزی و سد لتیان بیشترین تاثیر منفی را بر ساختار موجود­های زنده این رودخانه داشته‌اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Ecological integrity assessment of the Jajrood river using fish and macroinvertebrates indices

نویسندگان [English]

  • Kamal Khezri 1
  • Asghar Abdoli 1
  • Bahram Hasanzadeh Kiabi 2
  • Hussein Valikhani 1
  • Jaber Aazami 3

1 Department of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Management, Institute of Environmental Sciences Research, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Marine Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences and Technologies, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction:
Nowadays, many indicators have been developed to assess water quality and ecological classification of rivers based on variations in ecological structure. The goals of the study were assessing the ecological status, the effects of human land use, and the performance of the most common ecological indices for fishes and macroinvertebrates as biological evaluation of the Jajrood River.
Material and methods:
In the present study, sampling of water, macroinvertebrates, and fishes was done at 10 stations in November 2015. The physical, chemical, and biological parameters including temperature, turbidity, velocity and depth of water, acidity, electrical conductivity, BOD5, nitrate, ammonium, phosphate, dissolved oxygen, and fecal coliform were measured on-site or after the sampling. Macroinvertebrates sampling was performed using a Surber sampler with three replications at each station and fishes were sampled using an electrofishing apparatus. Different physicochemical, macroinvertebrates, and fish indices were used to evaluate the integrity of the Jajrood River. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) test was also used to analyze the relationship between macroinvertebrates and fishes with physical, chemical, and biological variables.
Results and discussion:
Overall, 481 specimens belonging to eight species of fishes and 2435 macroinvertebrates belonging to 15 families were collected. Among all sampled fishes, Oxynoemacheilus bergianus and Paracobitis malapterura had the highest and lowest abundance, respectively. The highest total percentage of macroinvertebrates abundance belonged to the Baetidae family of the order Ephemeroptera and the lowest percentage belonged to the Polycentropodidae of the order Trichoptera. The results of Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) showed that the efficiency of the EPT/CHIR index for macroinvertebrates was better than others. The Karr Biotic Integrity (KBI) that was used for fishes as a water quality index was suitable for the river.
Conclusions:
The present study was the first one that used both fishes and macroinvertebrates indices with physicochemical parameters for ecological integrity assessment. From the findings of this study, it can be concluded that the urban-rural and agriculture wastewaters and the Latyan dam had the most negative impact on the ecological structure of the river. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ecosystem management
  • Ecological index
  • Macroinvertebrates
  • KBI
  • Jajrood River

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