نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 بخش تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اردبیل (مغان)، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اردبیل، ایران

2 موسسه تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف:
بشر بدون توجه به نوع انرژی مصرفی، همیشه برای تأمین نیازهای اولیه غذایی خود مجبور به صرف انرژی بوده است. انرژی فسیلی فراوان سبب شده است که تأمین غذای جمعیت رو به گسترش ممکن شود. رشد جمعیت در سطح بالایی باقی‌مانده  ولی منبع­های انرژی بویژه انرژی فسیلی در حال کاهش است بنابراین جوامع نیازمند برنامه‌ریزی‌های اساسی در قبال مدیریت مصرف انرژی هستند. این پژوهش با هدف ارزیابی مصرف انرژی و انتشار گازهای­ گلخانه ‏ای نهاده­ های حاصل از مصرف ورودی برای تولید گندم آبی در استان اردبیل انجام شد.
مواد و روش‌ها:
جامعه آماری این تحقیق شامل 100 نمونه از کشاورزان گندم‌کار استان اردبیل است که از سه شهرستان بیله سوار، پارس‌آباد و اردبیل که بیش از 70 درصد سطح زیر کشت را داشتند انتخاب گردید. داده‌ها در سال زراعی 97-1396 با استفاده از روش تصادفی، نمونه‌برداری گردید. برای رسیدن به هدف ­ها، سامانه‌ تولید گندم آبی بر اساس شاخص‌های کارایی، بازده انرژی، سهم انرژی‌های مستقیم و غیرمستقیم و تجدیدپذیر و تجدیدناپذیر ارزیابی گردید.
نتایج و بحث:  
نتایج نشان داد کل انرژی ورودی حدود MJ ha-38755.34  بود. در بین نهاده‌های ورودی میزان کود نیتروژن و سوخت دیزل بترتیب با 37.38% و 19.03% بیشترین سهم را داشتند. سهم انرژی مصرفی مستقیم و غیرمستقیم بترتیب حدود 39.88% و 60.12% و انرژی‌های تجدیدپذیر و غیرتجدیدپذیر بترتیب 31,01% و 68.99% از کل انرژی‌های ورودی بود. کارایی مصرف انرژی برای تولید دانه و عملکرد بیولوژیکی گندم آبی بترتیب 1.67 و 1.99 به­ دست آمد. بهره‌وری انرژی نیز بترتیب 0.611و kg Mj-0.242 برآورد گردید. کل انتشار CH4,N2o و CO2 از مزرعه ­های گندم آبی  بترتیب517.14، 1.65و 1271.25 کیلوگرم در هکتار بود. ارزش ناخالص تولید و کل هزینه‌ای تولید گندم آبی در استان اردبیل بترتیب 59268792 و 39015747 ریال در هکتار و نسبت فایده به هزینه 1.52برآورد گردید که هزینه‌های ثابت و متغیر بترتیب 54.45 و 45.6 درصد بود.
نتیجه‌گیری:
پتانسیل گرمایش جهانی (GWP) kg CO2eq ha-161620.14 تخمین زده شد. سود خالص حاصل از تولید گندم آبی نیز 23691299ریال بود که نشان دهنده توجیه اقتصادی تولید گندم آبی در استان اردبیل بود. با توجه به نتایج و به منظور کاهش اثرات زیست محیطی نظام تولید گندم به نظر می ­رسد که می ­توان از روش های مختلف مدیریت نظام زراعی همچون کاربرد نهاده ­های آلی، تناوب، کم خاکورزی و بی خاکورزی بر مبنای بهره گیری از اصول کم نهاده برای کاهش این اثرات زیست محیطی بهره جست.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Economic assessment of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from wheat production in Ardabil provience

نویسندگان [English]

  • Jabraeil Taghinazhad 1
  • َAdel Vahedi 2
  • Fayaz Ranjbar 1

1 Department of Agricultural Engineering Research, Ardabil Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Ardabil, Iran

2 Department of Agricultural Engineering Research, AREEO, karaj, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction:
Today, the agricultural sector is dependent on energy consumption in order to respond to the growing demand for food and etc. The efficient use of inputs in agriculture lead to the sustainable production and help to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gases emission and save financial resources. Furthermore, detecting relationship between the energy consumption and the yield is necessary to approach the sustainable agriculture. It is generally accepted that many countries try to reduce their dependence to agricultural crop productions of other countries. The being Independent on agricultural productions lead to take more attention to modern methods and the objective of all these methods is increasing the performance with the efficient use of inputs or optimizing energy consumptions in agricultural systems. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of inputs and production performance, energy inputs and energy consumption, energy indices, and the environmental impacts of wheat production systems.
Material and methods:
This study was carried out in Ardabil province of Iran. To achieve these objectives, data were collected from 100 irrigated wheat farms selected from three counties including Parsabad, Bilesavar, and Ardabil during 2017-2018 using a random sampling method. Energy consumption in wheat production was calculated based on direct and indirect energy sources including human, diesel fuel, chemical fertilizers, pesticides, machinery, irrigation water, electricity and wheat stalk. Energy values were calculated by multiplying inputs and outputs per hectare by their coefficients of energy equivalents. Renewable energies include machinery, wheat stalk, chemical fertilizer while non-renewable energy consisted of machinery, chemical fertilizer, electricity and diesel fuel. Energy values were calculated by multiplying inputs and outputs per hectare by their coefficients of energy equivalents.
Results and discussion:
The results indicated that the total energy input was 38755.34 MJ ha-1, of which approximately 37.38% and 19.04% were produced from nitrogen fertilizers and diesel fuel, respectively. Approximately 39.03% of the total energy inputs used in wheat production was the direct energy, while the remaining 60.12% was indirect. Also, the results showed that energy use efficiency for grain production and biological yield of wheat was 1.67 and 1.99, respectively. Energy efficiency was estimated 0.116 and 0.142  MJ Kg -1. Total emissions of CO2, N2O, and CH4 from wheat farms were 1271.52, 517.14 and 1.65 kg ha-1, respectively. Gross value of production and Total production cost Was obtained 52268792 and 39015747. Benefit-cost ratio was obtained 1.52 and fixed and variable production cost were 54.45 and 45.6, respectively.
Conclusion:
The global warming potential was estimated 161620.14 kg CO2e ha-1. Direct, indirect, renewable, and non-renewable energy forms had positive impacts on the output level. It seems that management systems based on a low input system, including organic fertilizers, No tillage and minimum tillage, could be regarded as an alternative management strategy for  reducing problematic environmental impacts.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Energy efficiency
  • Inputs
  • Wheat
  • Global warming

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