نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه جنگلداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ساری، ایران

2 بخش تحقیقات بیولوژی خاک، موسسه تحقیقات آب و خاک کشور، تهران، ایران

3 بخش منابع طبیعی، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

4 بخش آب و خاک، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

چکیده

 سابقه و هدف:
روش ‏های فیزیکی و شیمیایی بسیاری برای پالایش خاک ­های آلوده به فلز­های سنگین وجود دارد که بیشتر آن‏ها افزون بر هزینه زیاد منجر به تخریب ساختار فیزیکی و شیمیایی و فعالیت­های حیاتی خاک می ­شوند. در سال­ های اخیر گیاه پالابی بعنوان روشی موثر، ارزان قیمت و دوست­دار محیط زیست برای حذف، جابجایی و یا غیرفعال کردن آلاینده ‏ها از خاک­های آلوده توصیه شده است.
مواد و روش­ ها:
این پژوهش بمنظور بررسی تأثیر تلقیح قارچ‏ های میکوریز مقاوم به سرب و روی بر برخی ویژگی‏ های مورفولوژیکی (رویش قطری، وزن تر و خشک اندام ‏های هوایی، وزن تر و خشک ریشه، افزایش ارتفاع و سطح برگ) گونه سنجد انجام شد. نهال‏ های یکساله گونه درختی سنجد با متوسط ارتفاع 70-50 سانتی متر، کمترین قطر 1.5-1 سانتی متر و تعداد برگ حداقل تا 30 عدد از نهالستان جبل عاملیان وابسته به اداره کل منابع طبیعی استان اصفهان تهیه شد. نهال‏ های تهیه شده به گلخانه مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منبع­های طبیعی استان اصفهان منتقل و به مدت بیست روز برای سازگاری با شرایط جدید، در آنجا نگهداری شدند. بدین منظور شش تیمار قارچ میکوریز (Glomus versiforme، G. etunicatum،  G. intraradices، G. mossea، یک تیمار ترکیبی از گونه‏ های نامبرده شده و شاهد تلقیح نشده) و پنج تیمار خاک (خاک آلوده طبیعی، خاک آلوده شده با سرب، خاک آلوده شده با روی، خاک آلوده شده با سرب و روی، خاک شاهد (بدون آلودگی) در نظر گرفته شد.
نتایج و بحث:
نتایج این بررسی نشان داد که اختلاف معنی‏ داری بین متغیرهای اندازه­ گیری شده در تیمارهای مختلف قارچ میکوریز وجود دارد. بیشترین میزان کلنیزاسیون مربوط به تیمار G. mossea به میزان 40.5 % و کمترین میزان در تیمار شاهد 25.6 % بود. همچنین قارچ‌ میکوریزی  G. mossea، رویش قطری، ارتفاع و شاخص سطح برگ را به ترتیب 2.8 میلیمتر، 36.1 سانتی متر و 28.8 واحد نسبت به شاهد افزایش داد. همچنین در همه تیمارهای قارچ میکوریز، اختلاف معنی‏ داری بین میانگین وزن تر و خشک اندام هوایی و ریشه ملاحظه شد. بیشترین وزن تر و خشک اندام هوایی در تیمار G. mossea به ترتیب 108.4 و 55 گرم و کمترین میزان آن در شاهد به ترتیب 59.4 و 30.3 گرم بود. بیشترین و کمترین وزن تر به ترتیب 95.3 و 78 گرم در تیمار شاهد و خاک آلوده به سرب و روی ملاحظه شد. بیشترین مقادیر همه متغیرهای بررسی شده در تیمارهای قارچ میکوریز مربوط به تیمار تلقیح شده با قارچ G. mossea و در تیمارهای خاک بررسی شده، مربوط به تیمار شاهد (خاک بدون آلودگی) می‏باشد. نتایج این بررسی نشان داد که تیمار تلقیح شده با قارچ G. mossea و تیمار خاک غیرآلوده موجب بیشترین رشد در گونه سنجد شد. با این وجود، بین میانگین متغیرهای وزن تر و خشک ریشه و شاخص سطح برگ در تیمارهای مختلف خاک اختلاف معنی­ داری ملاحظه نشد. رﯾﺸﻪﻫﺎ بعنوان ﺳطح­های ﺟﺬب ﮐﻨﻨﺪه آب و ﻣﻮاد ﻏﺬاﯾﯽ ﺗﺄﺛﯿﺮ ﺑﺴﯿﺎر زﯾﺎدی در ﺟﺬب آب و اﻣﻼح ﮔﻮﻧﺎﮔﻮن دارﻧﺪ و ﻋاﻣﻞ­های ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﺤﯿﻄﯽ از ﻃﺮﯾﻖ ﺗﺄﺛﯿﺮ ﺑﺮ رﯾﺸﻪ ﺑﺮ رﺷﺪ ﮔﯿﺎه اﺛﺮ ﻣﯽﮔﺬارﻧﺪ. ﺗﻨﺶ ﻓﻠﺰ­های ﺳﻨﮕﯿﻦ از ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻋاﻣﻞ­های ﻣﺤﺪود ﮐﻨﻨﺪه رﺷﺪ رﯾﺸﻪ اﺳﺖ و ﮐﺎﻫﺶ رﺷﺪ رﯾﺸﻪ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﯿﺖﻫﺎی رﺷﺪی ﮔﯿﺎه را ﺗﺤﺖ ﺗﺄﺛﯿﺮ ﻗﺮار ﻣﯽدﻫﺪ. همچنین در گیاهانی که با قارچ میکوریز تلقیح شده بودند، میانگین همه متغیرهای اندازه­ گیری شده در مقایسه با گیاهان شاهد (بدون قارچ) بطور معنی داری بیشتر شد.
نتیجه‏ گیری:
بنابر نتایج حاصل، قارچ G. mosseae در جذب آب و مواد غذایی بویژه فسفر و تجمع ماده خشک توسط گیاه بیشترین تأثیر را داشته و نسبت به دیگر قارچ ‏های هم‏زیست، از بیشترین کارایی در تولید زیتوده اندام هوایی سنجد برخوردار می ‏باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Identification of inoculated Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi resistant to lead and zinc and their effect on some morphological traits of the Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Bahman Zamani Kebrabadi 1
  • Syed Mohammad Hojati 1
  • Farhad Rejali 2
  • Masoud Esmaeili Sharif 3
  • Hamid Reza Rahmani 4

1 Department of Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran

2 Research Institute of Water and Soil, Education and Extension Organization, AREEO, Tehran, Iran

3 Research Division of Natural Resources, Isfahan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, AREEO, Isfahan, Iran

4 Research Division of Water & Soil, Isfahan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, AREEO, Isfahan, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction:
Phytoremediation was introduced as an effective, inexpensive and environmentally friendly to remove, displace or disable pollutants from polluted soils. There are numerous physical and chemical methods for the treatment of heavy metal contaminated soils, which in addition to high costs, lead to the destruction of the physical and chemical structure and vital activities of the soil. This study was applied in order to investigate the effects of inoculated Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of resilience to lead and zinc on some morphological traits (colonization, diameter growth, shoot dry and fresh weight, root dry and fresh weight, height and leaf area) of Elaeagnus angustifolia L.
Material and methods:
One-year-old seedlings of E. angustifolia species with an average height of 70-50 cm, minimum diameter of 1-1.5 cm and leaf number of at least 30 were provided from Jebel Amelian nursery affiliated to the Natural Resources Office of Isfahan Province. The seedlings were transferred to the greenhouse of the Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Isfahan Province and were kept there for 20 days to adapt to the new conditions. In doing so, six treatments of mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus versifome, G. etunicatum, G. intraradices, G. mossea, composition and control treatments) and five treatments of soil (naturally polluted soil, soil polluted with lead, soil polluted with zinc, soil polluted with lead and zinc, control (without pollution) treatment) were considered.
Results and discussion:
The results showed that there was a significant difference between the measured variables among the different treatment of mycorrhizal fungi. The highest and lowest colonization were observed for G. mossea (40.5%) and control treatment (25.6%), respectively. For G. mossea, the diameter growth (2.8mm), height (36.1cm) and leaf area index (28.8) increased in comparison to the control treatment. There was a significant difference between shoot dry and fresh weight and root dry and fresh weight in all of the treatment of mycorrhizal fungi. The highest dry and fresh weight of shoot was observed in G. mossea treatment (108.4 and 55 g) and the lowest was observed in control treatment (59.4 and 30.3 g). The highest and lowest of fresh weight were observed in control (95.3) and polluted soil with lead and zinc treatments (78g). Highest values of measured variables in all fungi and soil treatments were belonged to the inoculated treatment of G. mossea and the control treatment, respectively.
Conclusion:
Results of this study showed that inoculated treatment with G. mossea fungi and control treatment of soil caused the growth enhancement in E. angustifolia. However, there was no significant difference between mean fresh and dry weight of root and leaf area index in different soil treatments. Roots, as absorbent levels of water and food, have great effects on the absorption of water and various salts, and various environmental factors influence the growth of the plant through its effect on root growth. Heavy metal stress is one of the factors limiting root growth which affects plant growth activity. Also, in plants that were inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi, the mean of all measured variables was significantly higher than the control treatment. The highest shoot weight was observed in G. mosseae treatment, which suggests that G. mosseae contributed to the plant's absorption of water and food, especially phosphorus, and increased the accumulation of dry matter and has more efficiency in the biomass production of E. angustifolia.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Arbuscular
  • Soil pollution
  • Bioremediation
  • Elaeagnus angustifolia L
  • Mycorrhizal fungi
  • Morphological traits

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