نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه محیط زیست، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و محیط زیست، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم تحقیقات، تهران، ایران

2 گروه محیط زیست، دانشکده کشاورزی و محیط زیست، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد رودهن، رودهن، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف:
یکی از آلودگی­ های مهم منبع­ های آب سطحی، آلودگی ناشی از حضور فلز­های سنگین می باشد. فلز­های سنگین اجزای طبیعی تشکیل دهنده پوسته زمین هستند ولی فعالیت­ های انسان، سیکل ژئوشیمی و بیوشیمیایی تعادل این فلزها را برهم زده و سبب انتشار آن­ها در محیط زیست می شوند. در صورت ورود آلاینده­ ها به محیط آبی داخل رودخانه هر دو بخش آب و رسوب آن تحت تاثیر آلودگی قرار می­ گیرند، اما بخش رسوب ­ها بدلیل پویایی کمتر نسبت به محیط آب می ­تواند آلاینده­ های مختلف شیمیایی بویژه فلزهای سنگین را بیشتر در خود متمرکز سازند، بدین دلیل بررسی غلظت فلزهای سنگین در رسوب­ های بستر یک رودخانه، شدت آلودگی یا تاریخچه آن را بهتر از محیط آب آشکار می­سازد. این پژوهش برای بررسی غلظت فلزهای سنگین در آب و رسوب ­های رودخانه شاهرود با هدف تعیین وضعیت و شناسایی منبع ­های آلودگی فلزهای سنگین در منطقه مورد تحقیق انجام گرفت.
مواد و روش­ ها:
رودخانه شاهرود یکی از دو شاخة اصلی و عمده سفید رود می­باشد که از ارتفاع­ های البرز مرکزی سرچشمه می­ گیرد و تنها رودخانه دامنة جنوبی البرز است که به دریای خزر می­ ریزد. در تحقیق حاضر به بررسی غلظت فلزهای سنگین سرب، کادمیوم و آرسنیک در آب و رسوب­ های رودخانه شاهرود در محدوده شهر لوشان پرداخته شده است، همچنین ویژگی­ های فیزیکی و شیمیایی آب و رسوب­ها در مرحله اول نمونه برداری مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند، که با انتخاب 5 ایستگاه و انجام 4 مرحله نمونه برداری (فصل­ های پائیز و زمستان 95 – بهار و تابستان 96) انجام گرفت، در مجموع 40 نمونه آب و رسوب در طول رودخانه برداشت شد و پس از انتقال به آزمایشگاه غلظت پارامترهای مورد نظر اندازه گیری و مشخص شد.
نتایج و بحث:
نتایج به­ دست آمده بالا بودن پارامترهای BOD و COD را در نمونه ­های آب، بر اساس استاندارد­های تعیین شده در سازمان حفاظت از محیط زیست و  EPA را نشان می­ دهد و بر اساس شاخص IRWQI(SC) در رده متوسط تا بد قرار گرفته ­اند. غلظت فلزهای سنگین در نمونه­ های آب، با رهنمودهای موسسه استاندارد ایران، سازمان حفاظت از محیط زیست ، WHOو EPA مقایسه شده و همچنین از نظر شاخص توصیفیIRWQI(ST) مورد رده بندی قرار گرفته ­اند که میانگین غلظت سرب و کادمیوم در آب بعضی ایستگاه ­های نمونه برداری بالاتر از میزان استاندارد تعیین شده بوده و از نظر شاخص توصیفی سرب در رده به ­نسبت خوب تا متوسط و کادمیوم در رده کمابیش خوب تا به ­نسبت بد قرار  گرفته اند و غلظت آرسنیک در تمام ایستگاه­ ها پایین­تر از میزان استاندارد بوده و در رده خوب قرار گرفته است. غلظت سرب در رسوب ­های همه ایستگاه-ها پایین­ تر از میزان TEL، کادمیوم بالاتر از میزان PEL و آرسنیک پائین ­تر از میزان PEL در استانداردهای NOAA و CCME به ­دست آمد. برای ارزیابی کمی در رسوب­ ها، از شاخص­ های فاکتور آلودگی( Cf)، درجه آلودگی اصلاح شده (mCd)، شاخص زمین انباشت مولر(Igeo) و ارزیابی ریسک اکولوژیکی (Ri) استفاده شد که نتایج نشان دهنده آلودگی بالا و انسان زاد برای کادمیوم و ریسک اکولوژیکی زیاد و قابل توجه در رسوب­های منطقه مورد بررسی می­باشد. استفاده از کودهای شیمیایی فسفره در مزرعه­ ها و باغ ­ها و قرار گرفتن کارخانه سیمان در نزدیکی رودخانه را می­ توان از عامل­ های اصلی آلودگی کادمیوم در منطقه نام برد. همچنین بالا بودن BOD و COD در آب نشان از آلودگی بالای مواد آلی در منطقه بدلیل حضور مراکز صنعتی و سنتی فرآوری زیتون، کارخانه و کارگاه ­های روغن کشی زیتون و کشتارگاه ماکیان در منطقه می ­باشد.
پنتیجه­ گیری:
منطقه مورد مطالعه آلوده به فلزهای سنگین است و عامل اصلی در شکل گیری این آلودگی، غلظت بالای عنصر کادمیوم در رسوب­های رودخانه شاهرود می­ باشد و دارای اثرهای منفی و نامطلوب برای انسان، موجودات زنده و محیط زیست در محدوده شهر لوشان و منطقه­ های پایین دست رودخانه می­ باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

A comparative approach to investigate heavy metals pollution in water and sediment of rivers (case study: Shahrud river)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Masoud Motamedi 1
  • Azita Behbahaninia 2
  • Forugh Farsad 1

1 Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Islamic Azad University Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Environment, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment Islamic Azad University, Roudehen Branch, Roudehen, Roudehen, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction:
One of the major contaminants of surface water resources are heavy metals. Heavy metals are natural components of the earth's crust, but human activities, and geochemistry and biochemical cycles may disturb their balance and release them into the environment. Release of pollutants into the aquatic environment will affect both water body and sediments, mostly sediments because they are less dynamic. Therefore, the concentration of heavy metals in river bed sediments reveals the pollution more intensity or its history far better than the water body. This research was carried out to determine the concentration of heavy metals in water and sediments of Shahrud River with the aim of determining the condition of heavy metal contamination and their sources in the study area.
Material and methods:
The Shahrud River is one of the main branches of the Sefid-Rud River which originates from the central Alborz Mountains, and is the only river in the southern part of the Alborz, which flows into the Caspian Sea. In this study, the concentration of heavy metals namely lead, cadmium, and arsenic in the Shahrud River and sediments in Lowshan city has been studied. Accordingly, the physiochemical properties of water and sediments were investigated in the first stage of sampling. Moreover, five sampling stations were determined and four sampling stages (autumn and winter 1395- spring and summer 1396) were carried out. Totally, 40 samples of water and sediments were taken along the river and the concentration of the considered parameters was measured.
Results and discussion:
The results demonstrated that COD was lower that the EPA standard in all sampling stations except station 5. Furthermore, regarding the IRWQI (SC) water quality index, all stations were ranked from average to bad classes of quality. The BOD in all sampling stations was higher than the EPA standard and according to the IRWQI (SC) index, all stations were ranked "semi-bad" to "bad" class of quality. The concentrations of lead, cadmium, and arsenic in water samples were compared with the guidelines of the Iranian National Standards Organization, Department of Environment, WHO and EPA. Moreover, it was ranked based on IRWQI (ST). Our results proved that the mean concentration of lead at all stations was lower than the standard except stations 3 and 4. The concentration of these heavy metals was relatively ranked into moderate to good classes. The average concentration of cadmium was lower than the standard at all stations except stations 1 and 3, and in regard to the descriptive index, it is categorized into good to fairly bad, respectively. In addition, the average concentration of arsenic was lower than the standard values at all stations. Also, it was classified as good, regarding the descriptive index. The concentration of heavy metals in sediment samples at sampling stations showed that the concentration of lead at all stations was lower than TEL values in NOAA and SQGs standards, and the concentration of cadmium at all stations was higher than the PEL values. The concentration of arsenic at all sampling stations was lower than the PEL values and at stations 2 and 5 was higher than TEL values. To quantitatively assess the sediments, contamination factors (Cf), degree of contamination (mCd), molar accumulation index (Igeo) and ecological risk assessment (Ri) were considered. Results showed high manmade contamination of cadmium and significant ecological risk in sediments of the study area. The use of phosphorus fertilizers in fields and gardens as well as the location of the cement factory, which is near the river, are the main causes of cadmium pollution in the study area. Additionally, the high levels of BOD and COD in water indicated high levels of organic contaminants, due to industrial and traditional olive processing centers, olive oil mills and poultry slaughterhouses in the study area.
Conclusion:
The study area was contaminated with heavy metals, which is mainly caused by the high concentration of cadmium in sediments of Shahrud River. It is essential to mention that its negative impact on humans, organisms and urban environment in Lowshan city and downstream of the Shahrud river is undeniable.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Lead
  • Cadmium
  • arsenic
  • BOD
  • COD
  • Shahrud River

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