نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 بخش زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان گلستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، گرگان، ایران

2 گروه زراعت، دانشکده تولیدات گیاهی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف:
در سال‌های اخیر مصرف انرژی در کشاورزی به­شدت افزایش پیدا کرده و کشاورزی مدرن در زمینه‌ی انرژی، بسیار پرمصرف شده است. بیشتر انرژی مصرفی برای تولید محصول­ های کشاورزی بدلیل استفاده از نهاده‌هایی مانند: ماشین‌آلات، سوخت‌های فسیلی، کودهای شیمیایی و آفت‌کش‌ها است که استفاده نامناسب از این نهاده‌ها افزون بر پائین آوردن کارآیی مصرف انرژی در تولید، سبب ایجاد مشکل­ هایی برای سلامتی انسان و محیط زیست نیز می‌شود. در حال حاضر بدلیل بحران انرژی در جهان ضرورت مطالعه بیشتر در زمینه‌ی مصرف انرژی و یافتن راهکارهایی برای مصرف بهینه‌ی آن احساس می‌شود. این تحقیق بمنظور شناخت و بررسی سیر انرژی و پتانسیل گرمایش جهانی در تولید گندم و جو در زمین­ های شمالی دشت گرگان و در محدوده شهرستان آق­قلا انجام شد تا بتوان راهکارهای مناسب برای جلوگیری از اتلاف انرژی و کاهش اثرهای ‌محیط زیستی منبع­ ها را شناسایی نمود.
مواد و روش ­ها:
برای انجام این پژوهش اقدام به جمع‌آوری داده‌های مورد نیاز از منطقه مورد بررسی شد. بر همین اساس با مصاحبه با کشاورزان مختلف، برای گندم و جو به‌ترتیب 95 و 83 کشاورز انتخاب شدند که از طریق تکمیل پرسشنامه در محدوده شهرستان آق ­قلا به جمع‌آوری داده‌های موردنیاز ماشین‌آلات و نهاده‌های مصرفی شامل بذر، کود، سوخت و سم­ها در دو محصول گندم و جو دیم اقدام شد. پس از این مرحله داده­ ها توسط نرم­افزار اکسل در سه بخش مصرف سوخت، انرژی سوخت مصرفی و پتانسیل گرمایش جهانی ناشی از انتشار گازهای گلخانه­ای بر مبنای معادل دی‌اکسیدکربن محاسبه گردید.
نتایج و بحث:
نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین انرژی ورودی مستقیم در مزرعه­ های گندم و جو دیم به ‌ترتیب 38.8 و 46.8 درصد مربوط به مصرف سوخت می‌باشد. همچنین بیشترین انرژی ورودی غیرمستقیم با میزان 31.3 و 19.1 درصد به ترتیب برای مزرعه ­های گندم و جو دیم مربوط به کود نیتروژن به­ دست آمد. نسبت انرژی خروجی به ورودی در گندم و جو دیم به ‌ترتیب 5.01 و 5.03 محاسبه شد. همچنین میزان پتانسیل گرمایش جهانی در مزرعه­ های گندم و جو دیم به ‌ترتیب 943.9 و 739.1 معادل دی اکسیدکربن در هکتار به­‌دست آمد. نتایج نشان داد که افزایش مصرف سوخت و کود سبب افزایش میزان انرژی ورودی در هر دو محصول و نیز افزایش تولید گازهای گلخانه‌ای خواهد شد. بنابراین استفاده از ماشین‌آلات و ادوات کارآمدتر که موجب کاهش مصرف سوخت می‌شود و نیز رعایت تناوب زراعی مناسب و استفاده از کودهای آلی می‌تواند سبب کاهش انرژی مصرفی، افزایش بازده انرژی و نیز کاهش پتانسیل گرمایش جهانی در مزرعه­های گندم و جو دیم شود.
نتیجه­ گیری:
نتایج نشان داد که سوخت مصرفی در هر دو محصول بیشترین سهم انرژی ورودی را دارد و پس از آن کود مصرفی بویژه کود نیتروژنی قرار داشت. بنابراین کاهش مصرف سوخت با استفاده از کمبینات و استفاده از سیستم ­های کشت حفاظتی (حداقل خاک‌ورزی) برای کاهش میزان انرژی ورودی توصیه می‌گردد. همچنین رعایت تناوب زراعی و تناوب با گیاهان پوششی که قادر به تثبیت نیتروژن هستند ‌بعنوان یکی از راه‌کارهای کاهش مصرف کود توصیه می­ شود. پیشنهاد می‌گردد که با بهبود عملیات مدیریت، استفاده بهینه از کودها، کنترل آفت­ها، عملکرد در واحد سطح را افزایش داده و با افزایش عملکرد، کارآیی انرژی یعنی نسبت انرژی تولیدی به مصرفی را بهبود بخشیم.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of input, output energy and global warming potential in rainfed wheat and barley in Aq-Qala (Golestan province)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Taghi Feyzbakhsh 1
  • Nasibe Rezvantalab 2
  • Parisa Alizadeh 2

1 Golestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Gorgan, Iran

2 Deparment of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran,

چکیده [English]

Introduction:
In recent years, energy consumption in agriculture has increased dramatically, and modern agriculture has become very scarce in energy. Most of the energy used to produce agricultural products is due to the use of inputs such as machinery, fossil fuels, fertilizers and pesticides, that inappropriate use of these inputs while reducing energy efficiency in production also causes problems for human health and the environment. At the moment, due to the energy crisis in the world, it is necessary to study more about energy consumption and find solutions for its optimal use (Darlington, 1997). This study was conducted to identify the energy evolution and global warming potential in wheat and barley production in northern lands of Gorgan plain and in the city of Aq-Qala. So that appropriate strategies can be identified to prevent energy wasting and reduce the environmental impact of resources.
Material and methods:
For this study 95 and 83 farmers were selected for wheat and barley production in Aq-Qala city, respectively. The data including (machines, seeds, fertilizers, fuel and pesticides) were collected by questionnaire. Then fuel, input and output energy, energy evaluation indices and global warming potential (kg CO2.ha-1) were calculated by related coefficients (Soltani et al., 2013).
Results and discussion:
The results showed that the highest direct input energy in wheat and barley production belonged to fuel consumption were 38.8% and 46.8% respectively. Also, the highest indirect input energy was obtained with 31.3 and 19.1 percent for nitrogen fertilizer for wheat and barley fields, respectively. The ratio of the energy output to the input for rainfed wheat and rainfed barley were calculated 5.01 and 5.03, respectively. Also, global warming potential in wheat and barley production was 943.9 and 739.1 (kg eq-CO2 ha-1), respectively. In another study, greenhouse gas emissions for wheat production in Golestan province were estimated about 1200 kg CO2.ha-1 (Rezvantalab et al., 2015). Also, the results showed that increased fuel and fertilizer consumption will increase the amount of input energy in both crop production and increase the production of greenhouse gases. Therefore, the use of more efficient machinery and equipment, which reduces fuel consumption, and also, considering proper crop rotation and using organic fertilizers can reduce energy consumption, increase energy efficiency and reduce the global warming potential of rainfed wheat and rainfed barley production.
Conclusion:
The results showed that the fuel consumed in both products had the highest input energy input, followed by fertilizer, especially nitrogen fertilizer, Therefore, the reduction of fuel consumption by using combinators and the use of protection culture systems (minimum tillage) is recommended to reduce the amount. It is also recommended to observe crop rotation and rotation with cover crops that are able to stabilize nitrogen as one of the ways to reduce fertilizer use. It is suggested that yield increase by improving management operations, optimum use of fertilizers, pest control, and then, will improve energy efficiency.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Field operations
  • Fuel
  • Indirect energy
  • Specific energy

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