نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه محیط زیست، واحدلاهیجان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، لاهیجان، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف:
برای تعیین کیفیت آب شاخص ­­هایی وجود دارد که شاخص NSF از میان شاخص ­های عمومی کیفیت آب، بیشترین کاربرد را دارا است. هدف از معرفی شاخص NSFWQIطبقه ­بندی آب برای  مصرف­ های کلی (شرب، حیات آبزیان،  مصرف­ های تفریحی و ...) است. این  پژوهش با هدف بررسی کیفیت آب رودخانه لنگرودرودخان با استفاده از شاخص آب NSFWQI انجام گرفت که در آن 10 پارامتر شامل دمای آب، کدورت، فسفات، نیترات، اکسیژن محلول (DO)، کلیفرم مدفوعی، اکسیژن­ خواهی بیوشیمیایی (BOD)،pH ، جامدات محلول (TDS) و هدایت الکتریکی (EC) اندازه ­گیری شد.
مواد و روش­ ها:
جهت نمونه­ برداری 7 ایستگاه در طول رودخانه مشخص گردید و طی چهار فصل از پاییز 1393 تا تیر 1394نمونه­ برداری انجام شد. DO، pH، کدورت، هدایت الکتریکی، TDS و دما توسط دستگاه قابل حمل در محل اندازه­ گیری و نیترات و فسفات به روش اسپکتروفتومتری تعیین مقدار شد. اندازه ­گیری کلیفرم از روش  بیشینه تعداد محتمل(MPN) صورت گرفت.
نتایج و بحث:
بررسی شاخص ­های کیفیت آب نشان­ داد که شاخص­ های کدورت، درجه حرارت، نیترات، فسفات،TDS ، pH­و­EC در فصل تابستان دارای بیشترین میزان بودند که بیشترین مقدار BODمربوط به فصل بهار است. کلیفرم مدفوعی در  همه ­ی  فصل­ ها  نزدیک به یکسان بوده و اکسیژن محلول در فصل زمستان از بیشترین میزان برخوردار است. مقایسه میزان شاخص NSFWQI در هفت ایستگاه رودخانه لنگرودرودخان در  فصل­های مختلف بیانگر آن است که ایستگاه دوم (درویشانبر، بالادست) در فصل زمستان با عدد 63، بالاترین و ایستگاه خالکیاسر (پایین دست) با شاخص عددی 56، پایین­ترین  میزان عددی را به خود اختصاص داده  اند.
نتیجه­ گیری:
مقایسه کلی نشان داد که در تمام ایستگاه­ ها از فصل زمستان به سمت فصل تابستان، از  میزان عددی شاخص ­ها کاسته می­ شود. تفسیر نتایج بر اساس شاخصNSFWQI، نشان داد که در رودخانه لنگرودرودخان در طول مسیر، از ایستگاه بالادست به سمت ایستگاه پایین­ دست افزایش بار آلودگی و کاهش کیفیت آب  وجود دارد. لذا آب این رودخانه برای شرب و کشاورزی مناسب نیست و حتما قبل از استفاده باید مورد تصفیه قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Langroud river water quality assessment using NSFWQI qualitative indicators

نویسندگان [English]

  • Parisa Kazemi
  • Fatemeh Shariati
  • Abdolkarim Keshavarz Shokri

Department of Environment, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction:
There are numerous indices used to determine water quality, among which the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) index is one of the most functional ones. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the water quality of Langroud River using NSF Water Quality Index (NSFWQI), where 10 parameters including water temperature, turbidity, phosphates, nitrates, dissolved oxygen (DO), fecal coliform, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), and electrical conductivity (EC) were measured.
Material and methods:
Seven stations were selected along the river and samples were obtained during four seasons from February 2015 to July 2015. DO, pH, turbidity, and TDS were measured by a portable device. Nitrate and phosphate were determined by spectrophotometry. The temperature was measured by a thermometer. The coliform measurement was done by the 9-tube standard method.
Results and discussion:
Our results showed that turbidity, temperature, nitrate, phosphate, TDS, pH, and EC had the highest amount in summer, BOD reached its highest value in the spring, the amount of fecal coliform was almost the same in all seasons, and DO had its highest amount in winter. Comparison of the values of NSFWQI at seven stations of Langroud River in different seasons showed that the second station (Darvishanbar, upstream) had the highest value (63) in the winter, and Khalkyaser station (downstream) had the lowest value (56) in the summer.
Conclusion:
Generally, the results showed that in all stations, the numerical values of indexes are reduced gradually from winter to summer. Interpretation of the results based on NSFWQI indicates that in Langroud River from the first station to the last one, the pollution load increased and the water quality decreased. So, the river’s water is not suitable for drinking and it should be treated before application.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Langroud Roodkhan River
  • Pollution
  • Quality decrease
  • Water quality index

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