نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه آموزش محیط زیست، دانشگاه پیام نور، ایران

چکیده

 سابقه و هدف:
نور همواره نقش مهمی در تحول زندگی بشر داشته است، اما مسیر گسترش آن، که باید به سمت آسایش بشر باشد، گاهی با کاربرد نامناسب و بی‌جا، موجب ضرر و زیان او شده است. ایجاد روشنایی‌های بیش از حد و وجود نورهای خیره‌کننده و نورپردازی‌های غیرضروری در مرکز­های فروش به ­ویژه در بخش‌های تجاری شهر که از آن به عنوان آلودگی نوری یاد می‌شود می‌تواند سلامت مردم اعم از فروشندگان، مشتریان و رهگذران را به خطر بیاندازد، اما آنچه در این باره قابل تأمل است سطح دانش و آگاهی مردم در مورد آلودگی نوری و اثر­های زیان­بار آن است که می‌تواند سبب تغییر نگرش و رفتار شود، بنابراین در این پژوهش به بررسی" تاثیرآموزش مبحث­ های آلودگی نوری بر میزان آگاهی و رفتار مغازه‌داران( تحقیق موردی شهرستان نهاوند)" پرداخته‌شده است.
مواد و روش‌ها:
نوع تحقیق کاربردی و روش آن نیمه آزمایشی در قالب طرح پیش آزمون و پس آزمون برای دو گروه کنترل و آزمایش است. ابزار گردآوری داده‌ها پرسشنامه ­ای است که محقق طراحی کرده است. روایی پرسشنامه توسط کارشناسان متخصص و پایایی آن با روش آلفای کرونباخ مورد تأیید قرار گرفت. جامعه آماری، مغازه‌داران شهر نهاوند بوده است که در این تحقیق 40 مغازه‌دار و فروشنده در خیابان قیصریه نهاوند بر پایه داوری پژوهشگر گزینش شده و سپس به صورت تصادفی در قالب گروه‌های کنترل و آزمایشی گروه‌بندی شدند. پیش آزمون انجام و سپس آموزش‌ها به مدت 7 ساعت- نفر در زمینه مبحث ­های نور و الگوهای مصرف در 6 حوزه مفاهیم پایه، جنبه‌های اقتصادی، بهداشتی، ایمنی، محیط‌زیستی و اجتماعی اجرا شد. دوباره پس آزمون انجام شد. داده‌های استخراج‌شده توسط نرم‌افزار SPSS با استفاده از آزمون‌های کولموگروف- اسمیرنوف، لون، کوواریانس، t وابسته و مستقل مورد تجزیه و تحلیل آماری قرار گرفتند.
نتایج و بحث:
نتایج آزمون‌های تحلیل کوواریانس و t با سطح اطمینان 95 صدم نشان دادند که بین میانگین نمره­ های آگاهی و رفتار سنجی گروه آزمایش در قبل و بعد از آموزش تفاوت وجود دارد و همچنین بین میانگین نمره­ های پس آزمون آگاهی و رفتار سنجی گروه آزمایش و کنترل، تفاوت معنی‌داری وجود دارد. به طوری که نمره ­های گروه آزمایش افزایش یافته است. اندازه تاثیر آموزش برای آگاهی مغازه‌داران در حوزه‌های مفاهیم و آلودگی‌ها، اقتصادی، بهداشت، ایمنی، محیط‌زیستی و اجتماعی به ترتیب برابر 73،51،59،25،60 و 19 درصد است و همچنین نتایج آزمون تی با دو نمونه مستقل برای نمره متغیر رفتار سنجی  در حوزه­ های اجرای الگوهای رفتاری در زمینه ­های بالا، بین دو گروه آزمایش و کنترل، تفاوت معناداری (000/0) را نشان می‌دهد زیرا (p <0/05) می‌باشد.
نتیجه‌گیری:
براساس یافته‌های این تحقیق می‌توان نتیجه گرفت که آموزش مبحث­های نور و آلودگی‌های آن به فروشندگان می‌تواند در افزایش سطح آگاهی و تغییر رفتار آن­ها مؤثر باشد. بنابراین اطلاع‌رسانی برای افزایش دانش و سطح آگاهی عمومی و ایجاد تغییر رفتار آنان به ­ویژه در قشر فروشندگان و مغازه‌دارانی که در ساعت­ هایی از شب فعالیت دارند از اهمیت بالایی برخوردار است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of light pollution education on the level of knowledge and behavior of shopkeepers (a case study in Nahavand city)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Larijani
  • Mahdieh Rezaee

Department of Environmental Education, Payame Noor University

چکیده [English]

Introduction:
Light plays an important role in human life, however, the development of light sources which is meant for human comfort, sometimes causes them discomfort. Excessive and unnecessary lighting in shopping centers (i.e., light pollution), especially in the commercial segments of the cities, can be harmful to people's health including the sellers, customers and passersby. The level of knowledge and awareness of people about light pollution and its adverse effects on the attitude and behavior of people have been proven to be very important. Therefore, in this study, the influence of education about light and light pollution on the level of shopkeepers’ knowledge and behavior on the matter  was investigated in Nahavand city.
Material and methods:
In this study, we exploited a quasi-experimental design and collected data using questionnaires. The validity of the questionnaire was approved by experts and its reliability was confirmed with Cronbach's alpha. The statistical population of this study was 40 shopkeepers in Gheisarieyeh Street of Nahavand city, which were selected based on investigator’s judgment and then were randomly categorized in control and testing groups. Pre-tests were done and then seven hours training were performed for experimental groups and finally, a post-test was applied. The obtained data were analyzed with Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, independent-samples t-test, student’s paired-samples t-test, and analysis of covariance tests (ANCOVA).
Results and discussion:
The results of ANCOVA and t-test showed that the mean score of awareness and behavior variables were significantly different between experimental and control groups after training (with 95% confidence). The effect size of training for shopkeepers' awareness variables including the light pollution concepts and dimensions of economic, health, safety, environmental and social were, respectively, 37%, 51%, 59%, 25%, 60% and 19%. P-value for behavior variable was 0.000 which was lower than 0.05.
Conclusion:
This study showed that education on light and its related subjects (e.g., light pollution) may be useful in increasing awareness and promoting the behavior of shopkeepers. Therefore, increasing public knowledge in order to change the behaviors of sellers and shopkeepers, especially those active in night hours, is of great importance.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Awareness and Behavior variables
  • Education
  • Economic
  • Social and Environmental Factors
  • Light pollution

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