نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه مهندسی محیط زیست، دانشکده مهندسی عمران، دانشگاه صنعتی نوشیروانی بابل، بابل، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف:
فعالیت‌‌های اکتشافی استخراجی و پالایشگاهی در طول سالیان اخیر زیان­ های زیادی به محیط‌ زیست خلیج‌فارس وارد کرده است. در تحقیق حاضر منطقه‌ی ویژه‌ی اقتصادی انرژی پارس در بخش شمالی خلیج‌فارس که محل تجمع انبوه تأسیسات استخراج، پالایش، فرآوری و صادرات نفت و گاز است مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. همه‌ساله میزان ­های متنابهی از انواع آلاینده‌های نفتی به ساحل­ های خلیج فارس در این محدوده سرازیر می‌شود. هدف از این تحقیق، تعیین پراکنش و منبع دسته‌ای از آلاینده‌های نفتی خطرناک، تحت عنوان هیدروکربن‌های آروماتیک چند حلقه‌ای در محدوده بندر عسلویه است.
مواد و روش­ها:
تعداد 15 نمونه در اسفندماه سال 1394 با استفاده از نمونه‌بردار گرپ ون وین در 5 نیم‌خط به‌صورت عمود بر ساحل در محدوده‌ی فازهای 1 تا 5 منطقه ویژه اقتصادی انرژی پارس برداشت شده است. رسوب ­ها در فویل‌های آلومینیومی بسته‌بندی و به آزمایشگاه منتقل شد. نمونه‌ها توسط دستگاه فریزدرایر خشک شده و ذرات رسوبی ریزدانه (63µm≥) که به دلیل دارا بودن سطح ویژه بالا، قابلیت بیشتری برای جذب آلاینده ها دارند، با استفاده از روش فیزیکی غربال شدند. در نهایت 16 ترکیب از هیدروکربن‌های آروماتیک چند حلقه‌ای که از نظر آژانس حفاظت محیط‌زیست آمریکا سمی شناخته‌شده‌اند توسط دستگاه کروماتوگرافی گازی با طیف‌سنج جرمی مورد خوانش قرار گرفت. به این ترتیب میزان حضور این آلاینده ها در منطقه مشخص و پراکنش جغرافیایی این ترکیب­ها در سیستم اطلاعات مکانی با استفاده از نرم‌افزار ARCGIS ترسیم و منبع ترکیب­های آروماتیک مشاهده ای نیز به کمک شاخص­های توسعه داده شده تعیین گردید.
نتایج و بحث:
مجموع غلظت‌ 16 ترکیب آروماتیک چند حلقه‌ای مورد تاکید سازمان حفاظت محیط زیست آمریکا در ایستگاه­های مورد بررسی در گستره‌ی 6/46 تا 7/84 نانوگرم بر گرم وزن خشک تعیین شده است. منشأ این ترکیب­ها به کمک شاخص‌های توسعه داده شده پتروژنیک یا فسیلی تشخیص داده شده است. ریسک ‌محیط زیستی حضور این ترکیب­ها در رسوب­ها نیز با کمک راهبرد کیفی رسوب­های ایالت فلوریدا تعیین و مشخص گردید. به‌جز  Naphthalene و Acenaphthene، سطح غلظت دیگر هیدروکربن‌های مورد آزمایش پایین‌تر از سطح آثار آستانه‌ای می‌باشد. سطح آستانه‌ای، غلظتی است که پایین‌تر از آن، تاثیر­های بیولوژیکی زیان­ بار در موجوداتی کف زی به‌ندرت مشاهده می‌شود.
نتیجه­ گیری:
مجموع غلظت ترکیب­ های 16 گانه PAHs در سطح منطقه بیانگر آن بوده است که غلظت هیچ یک از ترکیب­ ها از دامنه پایین تاثیرها تجاوز نکرده بنابراین می‌توان نتیجه گرفت که احتمال رخداد آثار مضر و زیان­بار برای موجودات کف زی در این منطقه و به طبع آن برای دیگر موجودات زنجیره غذایی و انسان در انتهای زنجیره کم است. با توجه به‌شدت بالای رسوب‌گذاری و فرسایش و منشأ فسیلی آلاینده ­های مشاهده شده در سطح منطقه، آلودگی های پیشین شاید زیرلایه ­های رسوبی مدفون شده ­اند، به این دلیل ورود پیوسته آلودگی تاکنون نتوانسته سبب آلودگی شدید رسوب­ های سطحی گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of the coast of Pars special economic energy zone (Assaluyeh port)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Saman Rostami
  • Hasan Amini-Rad
  • Ozeair Abessi

Department of Environmental Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction:
During the last years, oil and gas exploration, extraction and refinery activities caused a lot of damage to the sensitive environment of the Persian Gulf. In the current study, the Pars Special Economic Energy Zone in the northern Persian Gulf was investigated, where oil and gas explorations, extractions, refineries and export infrastructures are concentrated. Each year, large amounts of petroleum-related pollutants discharge into the Persian Gulf in this region. In this research, the spatial distribution and the origin of oil-associated hazardous pollutants i.e., Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Assaluyeh Port were investigated.
Material and methods:
Fifteen samples of the surface sediment of the study area were collected in March 2016, using the Van Veen Grab sampler in five half lines perpendicular to the coast in phases one to five of the Pars Special Economic Energy Zone. Samples were packed in aluminum foils and transferred to the laboratory. Using freeze-drying process, the water was removed from the samples. Pollutants tend to accumulate in fine sediment particles due to the high specific surface area of these particles, and therefore, fine-grained particles (≥63 μm) were separated by physical screening. Finally, 16 compounds of PAHs, which are known as the toxic compounds by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total concentrations of the compounds were measured and their spatial distribution was illustrated using ArcGIS software. The origin of the observed Aromatic Hydrocarbons was also estimated using some indices.
Results and discussion:
Total concentrations of the 16 compounds ranged from 46.6 to 84.7 ng/g dry weight in the sampling stations. The source of compounds was identified using certain petrogenic multiple indices. Furthermore, the environmental risk of the presence of these compounds was estimated using the sediment quality guidelines of the state of Florid. It was shown that except for Naphthalene and Acenaphthene, concentration levels of other PAHs were lower than the threshold level, which is the concentration that destructive biological effects in benthic communities is rarely expected.
Conclusion:
Total concentrations of 16 PAH compounds in the study area showed that the concentration of no compound exceeded the concentration of Effects Range, so it can be concluded that the possibility of harmful effects on benthos communities and other organisms in the food chain and also humans at the top of the chain is low. Considering the high rates of sedimentation and erosion and also the fossil origin of the pollutants, it seems that contaminations are continuously being buried under the new layers of sediment in the study area. Therefore, the continuing source of pollution could not cause serious contamination in the surface sediment of the region.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Asaluyeh port
  • Persian Gulf
  • Petroleum hydrocarbons
  • Sediment quality guidelines
  • Surface sediments

Abessi, O. and Saeedi, M., 2010a. Evaluation of hydrocarbons pollution, biodegradation and weathering degree in surface sediments of the Caspian Sea along the coasts of Golestan and Mazandran provinces. Journal of Environmental Science. 8(1), 151-174.

Abessi, O. and Saeedi, M., 2010b. The Origin of oil hydrocarbons in Southern Coastal Sediments of the Caspian Sea in vicinity of Golestan and Mazandran province. Journal of Environmental Studies. 36(3), 43-58.

Agah, H., Mehdinia, A., Bastami, K.D. and Rahmanpour, S., 2017. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollution in the surface water and sediments of Chabahar Bay, Oman Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 115(1), 515-524.

Azimi Yancheshmeh R., Riyahi Bakhtiari, A. and Mortazavi, S., 2015. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from the southern shores of the Caspian Sea, Anzali city: toxicity assessment and source identification. Journal of Water and Wastewater. 4(1394), 41-50.

Baumard, P., Budzinski, H., Michon, Q., Garrigues, P., Burgeot T. and Bellocq, J., 1998. Origin and bioavailability of PAHs in the Mediterranean Sea from mussel and sediment records. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 47(1), 77-90.

Benlahcen, K.T., Chaoui, A., Budzinski, H., Bellocq, J. and Garrigues, P., 1997. Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in some Mediterranean coastal sediments. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 34(5), 298-305.

Blumer, M. and Youngblood, W.W., 1975. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils and recent sediments. Science. 188, 53–55.

Boulobassi, I. and Saliot, A., 1993. Dissolved, particulate and sedimentary naturally derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a coastal environment: Geochemical significance. Marine Chemistry. 42, 127–143.

Benlahcen, K.T., Chaoui, A., Budzinski, H., Bellocq, J. and Garrigues, P., 1997. Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in some Mediterranean coastal sediments. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 34, 298–305.

Burton, J.G.A., 2002. Sediment quality criteria in use around the world. Journal of Limnology. 3(2), 65-76.

Budzinski, H., Jones, I., Bellocq, J., Pierard, C. and Garrigues, P., 1997. Evaluation of sediment contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Gironde estuary. Marine Chemistry. 58, 85–97.

Commendatore, M.G., Esteves, J.L. and Colombo, J.C., 2000. Hydrocarbons in coastal sediments of Patagonia, Argentina: Levels and probable sources. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 40(11), 989-998.

Cripps, G.C., 1993. Hydrocarbons in the Antarctic Marine Environment: Monitoring and Background. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry 55(1-4), 3-13.

Effimoff, I., 2000. The oil and gas resource base of the Caspian region. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering. 28(4), 157-159.

Hong, H., Xu, L., Zhang, L., Chen, J.C.A., Wong, Y.S. and Wan, T.S.M., 1995. Environmental fate and chemistry of organic pollutants in the sediment of Xiamen and Victoria Harbours, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 31(12), 229-236

Gui-Peng, Y., 2000. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the sediments of the South China Sea. Environ. Pollut. 108, 163–171.

Keshavarzifard, M., Moore, F. Keshavarzi, B. and Sharifi, R., 2018. Distribution, source apportionment and health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in intertidal sediment of Asaluyeh, Persian Gulf, Environmental Geochemistry and Health. 40(2), 721–735.

Laflamme, R.E. and Hites, R.A., 1979. Tetra- and pentacyclic, naturally-occurring, aromatic hydrocarbons in recent sediments. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 43(10), 1687–1691.

Law, R. and Andrulewicz, E., 1983. Hydrocarbons in water, sediment and mussels from the southern Baltic sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 14, 289-293.

Leite, N.F., Peralta Zamora, P. and Grassi, M.T., 2011. Distribution and origin of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from an urban river basin at the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, Brazil. Journal of Environmental Sciences. 23(6), 904-911.

Long, E.R., Macdonald, D.D., Smith, S.L. and Calder, F.D., 1995. Incidence of adverse biological effects within ranges of chemical concentrations in marine and estuarine sediments. Journal of Environmental Management. 19(1), 81-97.

Long, E.R. and MacDonald, D.D., 1998. Recommended uses of empirically derived, sediment quality guidelines for marine and estuarine ecosystems. Journal of Human and Ecological Risk Assessment. 4(5), 1019-1039.

MacDonald, D.D., 1994. Approach to the assessment of sediment quality in Florida coastal waters. colume 1-development and evaluation of the sediment quality assessment guidelines, Report Prepared for Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Tallahassee, FL.

Magi, E., Bianco, R., Ianni, C. and Di Carro, M., 2002. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the sediments of the Adriatic Sea. Environmental Pollution. 119(1), 91-98.

McCready, S., Birch, G.F. and Long, E.R., 2006. Metallic and organic contaminants in sediments of Sydney Harbour, Australia and vicinity-A chemical dataset for evaluating sediment quality guidelines. Journal of Environment International. 32(4), 455-465.

Nayimi Nezam Abad, A., Ghahriudi Taali, M. and Servati, M., 2009. Monitoring changes in the coastline and jeomorphological landform of the Gulf of Aras by using RS and GIS. Journal of Geographical space. 30(10), 45-6. (In Persian)

Neff, J.M., Stout, S.A. and Gunster, D.G., 2005. Ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments: Identifying sources and ecological hazards. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management. 1, 22–33.

Notar, M., Leskov-Sek, H. and Faganel, J., 2001. Composition, distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of the Gulf of Trieste, Northern Adriatic Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 42(1), 36-44.

Ranjbar Jafarabadi, A., Riyahi Bakhtiari, A. and Shadmehri Toosi, A., 2017. Comprehensive and comparative ecotoxicological and human risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in reef surface sediments and coastal seawaters of Iranian Coral Islands, Persian Gulf. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 145, 640-652.

Rostami, S., Abessi, O. and Amini-Rad, H., 2019. Assessment of the toxicity, origin, biodegradation and weathering extent of petroleum hydrocarbons in surface sediments of Pars Special Economic Energy Zone, Persian Gulf. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 138: 302-311.

Saliot, A., 1981. Natural hydrocarbons in sea water. In: Duursma, E.K., Dawson, R. (Eds.), Marine Organic Chemistry. Evolution, Composition, Interactions and Chemistry of Organic Matter in Seawater. Elsevier Oceanography Series, Amsterdam, pp. 327–374.

Sicre, M.A., Marty, J.C., Saliot, A., Aparicio, X., Grimalt, J. and Albaiges, J., 1987. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in different sized aerosols over the Mediterranean sea: occurence and origin. Atmospheric Environment. 21 (10), 2247–2259.

Saeedi, M., Abessi, O. and Jamshidi, A., 2010. Assessment of hydrocarbons and heavy metals contamination of surface sediments of southern Caspian using developed indices. Journal of Environmental studies. 36 (1), 21-38.

Soclo, H.H., Garrigues, P.H. and Ewald, M., 2000. Origin of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coastal marine sediments: case studies in Cotonou (Benin) and Aquitaine (France) areas. Journal of Marine Pollution Bulletin. 40(5), 387–396.

Sporstol, S., Gjos, N., Lichtenhalter, R.G., Gustavsen, K.O., Urdal, K., Oreld, F. and Skei, J., 1983. Source identification of aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments using GC/MS. Environmental Science and Technology 17(5). 282–286.

Steinhauer, M.S. and Boehm, P.D., 1992. The composition and distribution of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons in nearshore sediments, river sediments, and coastal peat of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea: Implications for detecting anthropogenic hydrocarbon inputs. Marine Environmental Research. 33(4), 223–253.

Tolosa, I., Mesa-Albernas, M. and Alonso-Hernandez, C.M., 2009. Inputs and Sources of Hydrocarbons in Sediments from Cienfuegos Bay, Cuba. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 58(11), 1624-1634.

Wakeham, S.G., Schaffner, C. and Giger, W., 1980. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Recent lake sediments: II. Compounds derived from biogenic precursors during early diagenesis. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 44(3), 415–429.

Wang, Z., Fingas, M. and Sergy, G., 2001. Study of 22-year-old Arrow oil samples using biomarker compounds by GC/MS. Environmental Science & Technology. 28(9), 1733-1746.

Waseda, A. and Nishita, H., 1998. Geochemical characteristics of terrigenous- and marine-sourced oils in Hokkaido, Japan. Organic Geochemistry. 28(1), 27-41.

Yim, U.H., Hong, S.H. and Shim, W.J., 2007. Distribution and characteristics of PAHs in sediments from the marine environment of Korea. Chemosphere. 68, 85–92.

Yunker, M.B., Macdonald, R.W., Vingarzan, R., Mitchell, R.H., Goyette, D. and Sylvestre, S., 2002. PAHs in the Fraser River basin: a critical appraisal of PAH ratios as indicators of PAH source and composition. Organic Geochemistry. 33(4), 489–515.

rnal of Environmental Studies. 36(3), 43-58.

Agah, H., Mehdinia, A., Bastami, K.D. and Rahmanpour, S., 2017. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollution in the surface water and sediments of Chabahar Bay, Oman Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 115(1), 515-524.

Azimi Yancheshmeh R., Riyahi Bakhtiari, A. and Mortazavi, S., 2015. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from the southern shores of the Caspian Sea, Anzali city: toxicity assessment and source identification. Journal of Water and Wastewater. 4(1394), 41-50.

Baumard, P., Budzinski, H., Michon, Q., Garrigues, P., Burgeot T. and Bellocq, J., 1998. Origin and bioavailability of PAHs in the Mediterranean Sea from mussel and sediment records. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 47(1), 77-90.

Benlahcen, K.T., Chaoui, A., Budzinski, H., Bellocq, J. and Garrigues, P., 1997. Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in some Mediterranean coastal sediments. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 34(5), 298-305.

Blumer, M. and Youngblood, W.W., 1975. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils and recent sediments. Science. 188, 53–55.

Boulobassi, I. and Saliot, A., 1993. Dissolved, particulate and sedimentary naturally derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a coastal environment: Geochemical significance. Marine Chemistry. 42, 127–143.

Benlahcen, K.T., Chaoui, A., Budzinski, H., Bellocq, J. and Garrigues, P., 1997. Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in some Mediterranean coastal sediments. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 34, 298–305.

Burton, J.G.A., 2002. Sediment quality criteria in use around the world. Journal of Limnology. 3(2), 65-76.

Budzinski, H., Jones, I., Bellocq, J., Pierard, C. and Garrigues, P., 1997. Evaluation of sediment contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Gironde estuary. Marine Chemistry. 58, 85–97.

Commendatore, M.G., Esteves, J.L. and Colombo, J.C., 2000. Hydrocarbons in coastal sediments of Patagonia, Argentina: Levels and probable sources. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 40(11), 989-998.

Cripps, G.C., 1993. Hydrocarbons in the Antarctic Marine Environment: Monitoring and Background. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry 55(1-4), 3-13.

Effimoff, I., 2000. The oil and gas resource base of the Caspian region. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering. 28(4), 157-159.

Hong, H., Xu, L., Zhang, L., Chen, J.C.A., Wong, Y.S. and Wan, T.S.M., 1995. Environmental fate and chemistry of organic pollutants in the sediment of Xiamen and Victoria Harbours, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 31(12), 229-236

Gui-Peng, Y., 2000. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the sediments of the South China Sea. Environ. Pollut. 108, 163–171.

Keshavarzifard, M., Moore, F. Keshavarzi, B. and Sharifi, R., 2018. Distribution, source apportionment and health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in intertidal sediment of Asaluyeh, Persian Gulf, Environmental Geochemistry and Health. 40(2), 721–735.

Laflamme, R.E. and Hites, R.A., 1979. Tetra- and pentacyclic, naturally-occurring, aromatic hydrocarbons in recent sediments. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 43(10), 1687–1691.

Law, R. and Andrulewicz, E., 1983. Hydrocarbons in water, sediment and mussels from the southern Baltic sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 14, 289-293.

Leite, N.F., Peralta Zamora, P. and Grassi, M.T., 2011. Distribution and origin of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from an urban river basin at the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, Brazil. Journal of Environmental Sciences. 23(6), 904-911.

Long, E.R., Macdonald, D.D., Smith, S.L. and Calder, F.D., 1995. Incidence of adverse biological effects within ranges of chemical concentrations in marine and estuarine sediments. Journal of Environmental Management. 19(1), 81-97.

Long, E.R. and MacDonald, D.D., 1998. Recommended uses of empirically derived, sediment quality guidelines for marine and estuarine ecosystems. Journal of Human and Ecological Risk Assessment. 4(5), 1019-1039.

MacDonald, D.D., 1994. Approach to the assessment of sediment quality in Florida coastal waters. colume 1-development and evaluation of the sediment quality assessment guidelines, Report Prepared for Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Tallahassee, FL.

Magi, E., Bianco, R., Ianni, C. and Di Carro, M., 2002. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the sediments of the Adriatic Sea. Environmental Pollution. 119(1), 91-98.

McCready, S., Birch, G.F. and Long, E.R., 2006. Metallic and organic contaminants in sediments of Sydney Harbour, Australia and vicinity-A chemical dataset for evaluating sediment quality guidelines. Journal of Environment International. 32(4), 455-465.

Nayimi Nezam Abad, A., Ghahriudi Taali, M. and Servati, M., 2009. Monitoring changes in the coastline and jeomorphological landform of the Gulf of Aras by using RS and GIS. Journal of Geographical space. 30(10), 45-6. (In Persian)

Neff, J.M., Stout, S.A. and Gunster, D.G., 2005. Ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments: Identifying sources and ecological hazards. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management. 1, 22–33.

Notar, M., Leskov-Sek, H. and Faganel, J., 2001. Composition, distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of the Gulf of Trieste, Northern Adriatic Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 42(1), 36-44.

Ranjbar Jafarabadi, A., Riyahi Bakhtiari, A. and Shadmehri Toosi, A., 2017. Comprehensive and comparative ecotoxicological and human risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in reef surface sediments and coastal seawaters of Iranian Coral Islands, Persian Gulf. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 145, 640-652.

Rostami, S., Abessi, O. and Amini-Rad, H., 2019. Assessment of the toxicity, origin, biodegradation and weathering extent of petroleum hydrocarbons in surface sediments of Pars Special Economic Energy Zone, Persian Gulf. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 138: 302-311.

Saliot, A., 1981. Natural hydrocarbons in sea water. In: Duursma, E.K., Dawson, R. (Eds.), Marine Organic Chemistry. Evolution, Composition, Interactions and Chemistry of Organic Matter in Seawater. Elsevier Oceanography Series, Amsterdam, pp. 327–374.

Sicre, M.A., Marty, J.C., Saliot, A., Aparicio, X., Grimalt, J. and Albaiges, J., 1987. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in different sized aerosols over the Mediterranean sea: occurence and origin. Atmospheric Environment. 21 (10), 2247–2259.

Saeedi, M., Abessi, O. and Jamshidi, A., 2010. Assessment of hydrocarbons and heavy metals contamination of surface sediments of southern Caspian using developed indices. Journal of Environmental studies. 36 (1), 21-38.

Soclo, H.H., Garrigues, P.H. and Ewald, M., 2000. Origin of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coastal marine sediments: case studies in Cotonou (Benin) and Aquitaine (France) areas. Journal of Marine Pollution Bulletin. 40(5), 387–396.

Sporstol, S., Gjos, N., Lichtenhalter, R.G., Gustavsen, K.O., Urdal, K., Oreld, F. and Skei, J., 1983. Source identification of aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments using GC/MS. Environmental Science and Technology 17(5). 282–286.

Steinhauer, M.S. and Boehm, P.D., 1992. The composition and distribution of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons in nearshore sediments, river sediments, and coastal peat of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea: Implications for detecting anthropogenic hydrocarbon inputs. Marine Environmental Research. 33(4), 223–253.

Tolosa, I., Mesa-Albernas, M. and Alonso-Hernandez, C.M., 2009. Inputs and Sources of Hydrocarbons in Sediments from Cienfuegos Bay, Cuba. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 58(11), 1624-1634.

Wakeham, S.G., Schaffner, C. and Giger, W., 1980. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Recent lake sediments: II. Compounds derived from biogenic precursors during early diagenesis. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 44(3), 415–429.

Wang, Z., Fingas, M. and Sergy, G., 2001. Study of 22-year-old Arrow oil samples using biomarker compounds by GC/MS. Environmental Science & Technology. 28(9), 1733-1746.

Waseda, A. and Nishita, H., 1998. Geochemical characteristics of terrigenous- and marine-sourced oils in Hokkaido, Japan. Organic Geochemistry. 28(1), 27-41.

Yim, U.H., Hong, S.H. and Shim, W.J., 2007. Distribution and characteristics of PAHs in sediments from the marine environment of Korea. Chemosphere. 68, 85–92.

Yunker, M.B., Macdonald, R.W., Vingarzan, R., Mitchell, R.H., Goyette, D. and Sylvestre, S., 2002. PAHs in the Fraser River basin: a critical appraisal of PAH ratios as indicators of PAH source and composition. Organic Geochemistry. 33(4), 489–515.

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