نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه مهندسی عمران- محیط زیست، دانشکده مهندسی عمران و محیط زیست، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

2 گروه تبدیل انرژی، دانشکده مهندسی مکانیک، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف:
بسیاری از آلاینده ­های موجود در فاضلاب­ های صنعتی از قبیل رنگزاها به دلیل ماهیت پیچیده و مقاومشان به راحتی به ­وسیله فرآیندهای متداول تصفیه فیزیکی، بیولوژیکی و شیمیایی قابل حذف نمی ­باشند. بنابراین دستیابی به یک فناوری تصفیه موثر که بتواند مولکول­ های مقاوم را بطور کامل تجزیه کرده و یا به مولکول­ های کوچکتر قابل تجزیه با فرآیندهای مرسوم تبدیل کند، امری ضروری به نظر می ­رسد. کاویتاسیون چنین تکنیک امروزی­ای است که به دلیل قابلیت تولید رادیکال­ های آزاد با فعالیت بالا، به­ منظور شکست ترکیب­ های شیمیایی آلی و تجزیه آلاینده ­های مقاوم به تجزیه بیولوژیکی، مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. کاویتاسیون هیدرودینامیکی، توانایی به ­کارگیری در مقیاس بزرگتر به دلیل قابلیت تولید رادیکال­ های هیدروکسیل در شرایط محیطی با هزینه پایین تر در جهت به ­کارگیری اقتصادی ­تر را دارا است. هدف از این پژوهش به­ کارگیری کاویتاسیون هیدرودینامیکی به ­منظور تجزیه رنگزای راکتیو مشکی 5 و بهینه سازی پارامترهای موثر بر فرآیند (pH، فشار ورودی، قطر روزنه و غلظت رنگزا) با توجه به میزان راندمان و انرژی مصرفی بود.
مواد و روش­ ها:
در این پژوهش تجزیه رنگزای راکتیو مشکی 5 به­ وسیله کاویتاسیون هیدرودینامیکی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. 25/8 لیتر محلول رنگی در هر تست مورد آزمایش قرار گرفت. کاویتاسیون از طریق به­ کارگیری پمپ و صفحه روزنه­ دار تولید شد. به­ منظور بهینه­ سازی فرآیند، آزمایش­ های مختلف در pHهای 3 الی 11 و نیز با به ­کارگیری صفحه­ های با قطر روزنه مختلف 2، 3، 5 و 7 میلیمتر در فشارهای 2، 3، 4 و 5 بار و غلظت­ های رنگزای 30، 50 و 100 میلی گرم بر لیتر انجام گرفت. با توجه به ولتاژ ثابت برق شهری، جریان الکتریکی به عنوان شاخصی برای انرژی مصرفی به ­وسیله آمپرمتر مورد اندازه ­گیری قرار گرفت.
نتایج و بحث:
با توجه به نتایج با کاهش pH، میزان رنگبری افزایش یافت و صفحه ­های روزنه ­دار با قطر روزنه بزرگتر در فشارهای بالاتر راندمان بهتری داشتند. مشاهده گردید که افزایش غلظت اولیه رنگ، سبب کاهش راندمان حذف شد. صفحه با روزنه 7 میلیمتر در فشار ورودی 5 بار، بیشترین بازده را به ­دست داد ولی با در نظر گرفتن میزان انرژی مصرفی و با توجه به میزان بازده فرآیند به میزان مصرف انرژی، صفحه با قطر روزنه 7 میلیمتر و فشار ورودی 4 بار به ­عنوان بهینه انتخاب شد. pH برابر با 3، صفحه با روزنه به قطر 7 میلیمتر در فشار ورودی 4 بار و غلظت اولیه رنگزا برابر با 30 میلی گرم بر لیتر (با توجه به میزان انرژی مصرفی پمپ از طریق اندازه ­گیری جریان الکتریکی و راندمان فرآیند) به عنوان شرایط بهینه در نظر گرفته شد. در این شرایط پس از 120 دقیقه، میزان رنگبری برابر با 21/38 درصد به­ وسیله کاویتاسیون هیدرودینامیکی به ­دست آمد.
نتیجه­ گیری:
کاویتاسیون هیدرودینامیکی، توانایی به­ کارگیری در مقیاس بزرگتر به دلیل قابلیت تولید رادیکال­ های هیدروکسیل در شرایط محیطی را دارا است. مشخص شد که میزان مصرف انرژی عاملی تاثیر گذار در انتخاب شرایط بهینه بود. با کاهش غلظت اولیه رنگزا و pH، میزان حذف رنگ افزایش یافت و صفحه­ های روزنه­ دار با قطر روزنه بزرگتر در فشارهای بالاتر راندمان بهتری داشتند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Application of hydrodynamic cavitation process for dye removal and optimization based on energy consumption

نویسندگان [English]

  • Pooya Arbab 1
  • Bita Ayati 1
  • Mohammad Reza Ansari 2

1 Department of Environmental Civil Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Energy Conversion, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction:
Many pollutants in industrial wastewaters, such as dyes, can't be removed easily by the conventional physical, biological and chemical purification processes, because of their complexity and intractability. Therefore, it is necessary to find an effective treatment technology that can degrade complex bio-refractory molecules or can breakdown them into smaller molecules which can be further degraded by conventional methods. Cavitation is one such recent technique which has been extensively studied for the treatment of complex wastewater due to its ability of generating highly reactive free radicals. Hydrodynamic cavitation has a potential of application on larger scale due to its capability in generating hydroxyl radicals at ambient condition, easy scale up and less material cost making it more economical to employ. The purpose of this study was application of hydrodynamic cavitation process for removing Reactive Black 5 and optimization the affecting parameters (pH, inlet pressure, hole diameter and initial concentration of dye) based on the amount of efficiency and energy consumption.
Material and methods:
In this research, removal of Reactive Black 5 with the use of hydrodynamic cavitation process was studied. 8.25 liters of colored solution was examined in each test. The cavitation was produced by orifice plate and pump. In order to optimize process, various trials were performed in pH of 3 to 11 and also using different orifice plates with hole diameter of 2, 3, 5 and 7 mm at inlet pressures of 2, 3, 4 and 5 bar and dye concentration of 30, 50 and 100 ppm. Due to the constant voltage of urban electricity, the electric current was measured as an indicator of energy consumption by ammeter.
Results and discussion:
According to the results by reducing the pH, dye removal was increased and orifice plates with larger hole diameter in upper pressures had better efficiency. It was observed that increasing the initial concentration of dye resulted in decreasing dye removal efficiency. The orifice with 7 mm hole diameter at 5 bar inlet pressure yielded the highest efficiency, but by involving the amount of energy consumed and considering the process efficiency to energy consumption, the orifice with 7 mm hole diameter at 4 bar inlet pressure was chosen as the best. The pH of 3, orifice with 7 mm hole diameter at 4 bar pressure and initial concentration of 30 ppm (with regards to pump energy consumption obtained from measuring the electrical current and the efficiency of process) were selected as optimum conditions. In these conditions after 120 minutes, 38.21% dye removal was obtained using hydrodynamic cavitation.
Conclusion:
Hydrodynamic cavitation has a potential of application on larger scale due to its capability in generating hydroxyl radicals at ambient condition. It was found that the energy consumption was an effective factor in selecting the optimum conditions. By reducing the initial dye concentration and pH, dye removal was increased and orifice plates with larger hole diameter in upper pressures had better efficiency.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Dye
  • Energy
  • Hydrodynamic Cavitation
  • Orifice Plate
  • Pressure

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