نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه محیط‌زیست، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و محیط‌زیست، دانشگاه یزد، یزد، ایران

2 گروه برنامه‌ریزی آموزشی و ارزیابی عملکرد HSE، شرکت ملی صنایع پتروشیمی ایران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف:
با گسترش صنعت­های مختلف، باوجود ایجاد رفاه برای انسان، خطر­ها و ریسک­های نهفته جدیدی نیز برای وی به وجود ­آمده ­است. صنعت پتروشیمی با توجه به گستردگی و حجم فعالیت­ ها و توانایی ایجاد خطر هم برای انسان و هم برای محیط‌زیست جزء صنعت­ های با ریسک بالا محسوب می­شود. هدف از این تحقیق، ارزیابی و رتبه ­بندی ریسک ­های منتج از فعالیت­های فرآیندی در مجتمع پتروشیمی کرمانشاه است. 
مواد و روش‎ها:
تحقیق حاضر یک پژوهش تحلیلی- میدانی است که در یک بازه زمانی حدود10 ماه در مجتمع پتروشیمی کرمانشاه انجام گرفت. در این تحقیق ضمن بررسی خط­های تولید محصول­ ها (اوره و آمونیاک)، تیمی 5 نفره از کارشناسان و خبرگان تشکیل شد. سپس به تهیه­ ی لیستی ابتدایی از مهم‌ترین ریسک­ ها و خطر­ها در حوزه­ ی محیط‌ زیست اقدام و در مرحله ­ی بعد با استفاده از روش طوفان فکری و تکنیک دلفی اقدام به اصلاح لیست ابتدایی خطر­ها و ریسک ­های محیط زیستی شد و در قالب روش FMEA سنتی و فازی به ارزیابی ریسک محیط زیستی پرداخته شد.
 نتایج و بحث:
بنابر نتایج به ­دست ­آمده از تعداد 38 ریسک شناسایی شده با روش FMEA سنتی، بالاترین رتبه مربوط به ریسک انتشار گازهای هیدروژن و آمونیاک در زمان از سرویس خارج شدن واحد آمونیاک و کمترین رتبه متعلق به ریسک پساب ­های آمونیاکی است. همچنین بیشترین فراوانی تأثیر ریسک ­ها مربوط به آلودگی هوا و نیز بیشترین دلیل ریسک ­ها مربوط به نقص در شبکه و اتصال­ها هستند. نتایج فازی سازی ورودی ­ها و خروجی روش FMEA نشان می­دهد که از مجموع 15 ریسک که به صورت کلی در مجتمع پتروشیمی با نظر­های خبرگان شناسایی شده بیشترین عدد اولویت فازی در بخش بهداشتی مربوط به آلودگی صوتی (75/0)، در بخش ایمنی مربوط به سقوط از ارتفاع (75/0) و در بخش محیط‌زیست مربوط به کاهش منابع اکولوژیکی (613/0) طبق جدول 9 است. 
نتیجه­ گیری:
طبق نتایج این تحقیق، رویکرد FMEA فازی می­تواند به عنوان جایگزین مناسبی برای رویکرد سنتی FMEA در زمان نیاز به بیان نتایج، با دقت بیشتر باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Environmental risk assessment of Kermanshah petrochemical complex using FMEA method

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sajjad Bahrami 1
  • Ahad Sotoudeh 1
  • Naser Jamshidi 2
  • Mohammad Reza Elmi 1

1 Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Desert Studies, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran

2 HSE Training Planning and Performance Assessment Manager, National Petrochemical Company, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction: Development of various industries, despite providing human welfare, has potential risks for mankind. Due to its extensive operations and activity and also the potential risk for humans and the environment, the petrochemical industry is considered a high-risk industry. The purpose of this study was to assess and prioritize the risks resulting from process activities in Kermanshah petrochemical complex using two approaches (i.e., the traditional and fuzzy FMEA method). Material and methods: The present study was an analytical-field research that has been conducted in Kermanshah petrochemical complex for 10 months. In this study, the product lines (urea and ammonia) were investigated and also a team of five experts was formed. In addition, an initial list of the most important risks and hazards in the environmental field was prepared and then, by using Brainstorming and Delphi Technique, the list was corrected. Finally, environmental risk assessment in the form of traditional and fuzzy FMEA methods was evaluated.  Results and discussion: According to the results, 38 risks were identified by traditional FMEA. The highest priority risk was related to hydrogen and ammonia gas emissions when the ammonia unit was out of service by RPN number of 491. The lowest priority risk belonged to ammonia effluents by RPN number of 28. Also, the highest risks to air pollution, as well as the causes of the risks were related to defects in the system and connections. The results of input fuzzification and output FMEA method showed that among the 15 identified risks in the petrochemical complex, the highest number of fuzzy priority in the health section was related to noise pollution (0.75), in the safety section was falling from the heights (0.75), and in the environmental sector for the reduction of ecological resources (0.613). Conclusion: Comparing these two approaches suggest that the traditional FMEA is powerful in the early stages of risk assessment process, and on the other hand, the fuzzy approach is more flexible and user-friendly in the stage of prioritizing the risks.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Risk Assessment
  • Environment
  • fuzzy- FMEA
  • Kermanshah Petrochemical

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