نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه حقوق جزا و جرم‌شناسی، دانشکده حقوق، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

2 گروه آلاینده‌های محیط زیست، پژوهشکده علوم محیطی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف:
بررسی سوابق تحقیقی در مورد مسئولیت کیفری دولت در قبال جرایم زیست­محیطی در ایران به‌خوبی آشکار می‌کند که شناخت مسئولیت کیفری برای دولت به‌عنوان بارزترین و مهم‌ترین شخص حقوقی یکی از دغدغه‌های نظام عدالت کیفری بوده و عدم شناسایی مسئولیت کیفری برای دولت به‌عنوان یکی از معضلات نظام‌های حقوقی است. اگر چه قانون گذار در تبصره ماده 20 قانون مجازات اسلامی 1392، مسئولیت کیفری برای دولت را شناسایی نکرده اما درباره مبانی ضروری جرم‌انگاری جرایم دولتی در حوزه جرایم زیست‌محیطی هیچ نظریه‌پردازی صورت نگرفته است. هدف نگارندگان، شناسایی و معرفی ادله ضرورت جرم‌انگاری و احراز مسئولیت کیفری برای دولت در جرایم زیست‌محیطی است. 
مواد و روش‌ها:
در این تحقیق با روش تحلیلی، توصیفی و با بهره‌گیری از منابع کتابخانه‌ای، به تحلیل و بررسی ادله ضرورت شناسایی مسئولیت کیفری برای دولت، جرایم دولتی در حوزه زیست‌محیطی و چالش‌های موجود در زمینه مسئولیت کیفری دولت پرداخته وراهکار‌های مناسب ارائه شده است. 
نتایج و بحث:
شناسایی مسئولیت کیفری برای دولت در جرایم زیست‌محیطی، از اهمیت فراوانی در کشور‌ها برخوردار است، چراکه در کشور‌های وابسته به صنعت نفت و گاز و آلودگی‌هایی که در این حوزه‌ها اتفاق می‌افتد توسط بخش دولتی است. بنابراین شناسایی مسئولیت کیفری برای دولت می‌تواند گام مثبتی در جهت حمایت کیفری همه‌جانبه از محیط زیست باشد.
 نتیجه‌گیری:
با توجه به اینکه دولت مهم‌ترین شخص حقوقی است و آلوده کردن محیط زیست از سوی دولت باعث تضعیف حاکمیت می‌شود، بنا‌بر ادله عقلی و قانونی موجود از جمله قانون مدیریت خدمات کشوری 1386 که در بند ط ماده 8 این قانون، حفظ محیط زیست از موارد اعمال حاکمیتی است، اصل مساوات و برابری همگان در برابر قانون اساسی ایجاب می‌کند که دولت نیز دارای مسئولیت کیفری باشد البته با مجازات‌های بازدارنده مناسب برای دولت که باعث تضعیف حاکمیت و خلل در امر حاکمیت نشود. 

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Government criminal responsibility for environmental crimes in Iran: necessities and challenges

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amin Hajivand 1
  • Alireza Mirkamali 1
  • Farshid Safari 2
  • Omid Sarvai Sarmidani 1

1 Department of Criminal law and Criminology, Faculty of law, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Environmental Pollutants Research, Environmental Sciences Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction:
A study of research evidence clearly reveals that the recognition of criminal responsibility for the state as the most prominent and most significant legal person is one of the concerns of the criminal justice system, and the lack of recognition of criminal liability for the state as one of the problems of legal systems. The mandates in the Note to section 20 (1)of the Islamic Penal Code )1392( did not identify criminal responsibility for the state, and no theorizing has been made regarding the grounds for criminalizing state actions in the field of environmental crimes. The aim of the authors is to identify and justify the necessity of criminalization of and assigning criminal liability to the Government in environmental crimes. 
Materials and methods:
In this research, analytical, descriptive and library sources are used to analyze the reasons for the necessity of identifying criminal responsibility for the state, state environmental crime, the existing challenges in the field of criminal responsibility of the state, and providing appropriate solutions have been taken. 
Results and discussion:
Identification of criminal liability for the Government in environmental crime is of great importance in all countries, especially in countries dependent on the oil and gas industry since the pollution occurring in these areas is often caused by the public sector. Therefore, identifying criminal liability for the state can be a positive step towards full environmental protection.
 Conclusion:
Given the fact that the Government is the most important legal person and that it pollutes the environment, this weakens the government as based on rationality and legal reasoning, including the Law on the Administration of Civil Services of 1386 where it is stipulated in section 8 of this law that the environment is protected from acts of sovereignty. Therefore, the principle of equal treatment and equality of all before the Constitution requires that the state also has criminal responsibility, of course with appropriate deterrents for the Government that would undermine the sovereignty and impediment of governance.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • criminal responsibility
  • Government
  • Water Pollution
  • Air pollution
  • Environmental crime

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