نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم و مهندسی محیط‌ زیست، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی و کویرشناسی، دانشگاه اردکان، یزد، ایران

2 گروه تخصصی علوم و مهندسی محیط زیست، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و محیط زیست، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم تحقیقات، تهران، ایران

3 گروه مرتع و آبخیزداری، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی و کویرشناسی، دانشگاه اردکان، یزد، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف:
نگرانی‌هایی از مناسب نبودن کیفیت محیط زیست در اغلب شهرهای ایران وجود دارد. مشکلات زیست‌محیطی یکی از اساسی‌ترین مسائل شهرهای امروزی و حاصل تعارض و تقابل آنها با محیط طبیعی است. محیط زیست شهری شامل سه زیر‌سیستم محیط طبیعی، محیط اجتماعی–اقتصادی و ساختار انسان‌ساخت است. کیفیت زندگی شهرها یکی از عناصر اصلی توسعه شهری دانسته می‌شود در نتیجه ارزیابی کیفیت محیط زیست شهری امروزه اهمیت بسیار زیادی در برنامه‌ریزی‌های توسعه شهری پیدا کرده است. به‌طورکلی کیفیت زندگی معیاری برای برآورده شدن نیازهای شهروندان جامعه در برخورداری از امکانات و خدمات اجتماعی، اقتصادی، زیست‌محیطی و همچنین دسترسی به تسهیلات شهری مثل بیمارستان، پارک و ... است. این پژوهش تلاش دارد تا شاخص‌های زیست‌محیطی شهر کرمانشاه را به کمک پرسش‌نامه، تکنیک دلفی و تحلیل عاملی، شناسایی و رتبه‌بندی کند. 
مواد و روش‌ها:
این تحقیق به لحاظ ماهیت و اهداف از نوع توصیفی-تحلیلی و از منظر جمع‌آوری داده‌ها و اطلاعات به‌صورت اسنادی و پیمایشی خواهد بود. جامعه آماری تحقیق متخصصان رشته محیط زیست هستند که بر اساس نظر آنها و شرایط زیست‌محیطی استان شاخص‌ها با تکنیک دلفی و به کمک پرسش‌نامه استخراج شدند. یکی از روش‌های کسب دانش گروهی استفاده از تکنیک دلفی است. اعضای تشکیل‌دهنده پنل دلفی بین 15-10 نفر است که در دو یا سه دور بر اساس توافق اعضا پرسش‌نامه توزیع می‌شود. با اتفاق نظر اعضای پنل دلفی پرشس‌نامه‌ها در سه دور توزیع شدند که در هر دور بعضی از شاخص‌ها از مجموع سوالات حذف شدند و عامل‌هایی که در هر دور بیشترین امتیاز را کسب کردند برای دور بعدی انتخاب شدند. به‌منظور ارزیابی و تجزیه‌‌وتحلیل داده‌های حاصل از پرسش‌نامه برای تعیین شاخص‌های اصلی از روش تحلیل عاملی در نرم‌افزار spss  استفاده خواهد شد.
 نتایج و بحث:
طبق نتایج به‌دست‌آمده از تحلیل پرسش‌نامه‌ها در سه دور از بین 51 شاخص اولیه استخراج‌شده از موسسات معتبر بین‌المللی و شاخص‌های داخلی ایران و بومی‌سازی این شاخص‌ها برای شهر کرمانشاه 15 شاخص به‌عنوان شاخص‌های نهایی انتخاب شدند. پس از تجزیه‌و‌تحلیل داده‌ها با روش تحلیل عاملی در نرم‌افزار SPSS نتایج نشان داد که از بین 15 عامل نهایی 6 عامل تراکم ایستگاه پایش آلودگی هوا، سطح تصفیه فاضلاب، بلایای طبیعی، نسبت ساختمان‌های بادوام به کل ساختمان‌ها، حجم زباله تولیدی و تراکم انواع فضای سبز دارای مقادیر ویژه بالای یک بودند به‌عنوان عامل‌های اصلی انتخاب شدند که مجموعا 336/82 واریانس جامعه را به خود اختصاص داده‌اند که عامل تراکم ایستگاه پایش آلودگی هوا به‌عنوان عامل اول با 046/31 بیشترین واریانس را به خود اختصاص داده است.
 نتیجه‌گیری:
تعیین شاخص‌ها به‌منظور ارزیابی کیفیت وضعیت محیط زیست شهری، مهمترین و اولین گام در راستای تعیین کیفیت محیط زیست شهری به حساب می‌آید. این تحقیق علاوه بر بررسی وضعیت محیط زیست شهری کلان‌شهر کرمانشاه، به دنبال ایجاد بستری مناسب برای ارائه راهبردهایی برای پایدار‌سازی شهری با نگرش‌های زیست‌محیطی به‌منظور ایجاد تحول در شرایط محیط زیستی شهر کرمانشاه است. از بین 6 عامل نهایی 4 عامل مربوط به بعد فیزیکی–شیمیایی هستند که نشان از حساسیت بالای این محیط و لزوم توجه بالای مسئولان به این بخش برای بالا بردن کیفیت محیط زیست شهری است. 

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Valuating urban environmental quality using factor analysis method (case study: Kermanshah metropolis)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shadi Ahmadian 1
  • Maryam Morovati 1
  • Maryam Robati 2
  • Majed Sadeghinia 3

1 Department of Environmental Science and Enginnering, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Ardakan University, Ardakan, Iran

2 Department of Environmental Science and Enginnering, Faculty of Natural Resource and Environment, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Rangeland and Watershed Management, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Ardakan University, Ardakan, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction:
Concerns about the inadequacy of environmental quality exist in most cities of Iran. Environmental problems represent one of the most important issues in modern urban areas, alongside their conflicts with the natural environment. The urban environment comprises the three sub-systems of natural environment, socio-economic environment, and human structure. Moreover, quality of life in cities is one of the main elements in urban development. As a consequence, Urban Environment Quality Assessment has been of great importance in urban development planning. Generally, quality of life is an important criterion for meeting the needs of urban citizens and for enabling social and economic services for them as well as ensuring access to such urban amenities as hospitals, parks, etc. This research study aimed to identify and rank the environmental indicators in Kermanshah city though use of a questionnaire, the Delphi technique and factor analysis. 
Materials and methods:
This research was descriptive-analytical in terms of its character and objectives, and fro the perspective of data and information collection in a documentary and survey manner. The statistical population of the study comprised environmental experts identifies according to their environmental conditions and the indicators were extracted using the Delphi technique, as a knowledge-gathering method, and questionnaires. The members of the Delphi panel comprised between 10-15 people distributed over two or three rounds based on the agreement of the members of the questionnaire group. With the consent of the members of the Delphi panel, three rounds of questionnaires were distributed and, in each round, some of the indices were eliminated from the total of the questions and the factors that scored highest in each round were selected for the next one. In order to evaluate and analyse the questionnaire data and determine the main factors, a factor analysis method was used in SPSS software. Factor analysis is a method for reducing a large number of quantitative variables into a small number of underlying assumed variables, known as agents, and its main purpose is to reduce the volume of data and to determine the most important variables in the formation of a particular phenomenon. 
 Results and discussion:
According to the results of the analysis of questionnaires in three rounds of 51 primary indicators extracted from internationally accredited institutions and indices of Iran, and the localization of these indicators for Kermanshah, 15 indicators were selected as final indicators. After analysing the data using the factor analysis method in SPSS software, the results showed that among the 15 final factors, the six following factors relating to air pollution monitoring station density, wastewater treatment, natural disasters, ratio of durable buildings to total buildings, the volume of produced waste, and the density of green spaces were of a high magnitude of one and were selected as the main factors that gave a total of 82.336 variance among the community. The factor of air pollution monitoring station density was allocated as the first factor with the highest variance at 31.046. 
Conclusion:
Thus, it can be concluded that the determination of indicators for assessing the quality of urban environmental conditions is considered as the most important and is the first step in determining the quality of any given urban environment. In addition to studying and studying the urban environment of Kermanshah, this research provides an appropriate basis for developing strategies for urban sustainability with environmental attitudes in order for environmental conditions of Kermanshah to evolve. Of the six final factors, there are four physical-chemical factors that indicate the high sensitivity of this environment and the need for high level officials to increase the quality of this urban environment.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Delphi technique
  • Factor
  • Factor analysis
  • Urban environmental quality
  • Questionnaire method

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