نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه آب‌ و هواشناسی، دانشکده علوم زمین، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

2 گروه آب و هواشناسی، دانشکده جغرافیا و علوم محیطی، دانشگاه حکیم سبزواری، سبزوار، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف:
پارامتر دمای هوا یکی از مهم‌ترین سنجه‌های شناسایی وضعیت آب‌وهوایی و محیطی هر منطقه محسوب می‌شود. امروزه با استفاده از داده‌های مادون قرمز حرارتی امکان تهیه نقشه‌های دمای سطح زمین، بدون تماس فیزیکی با اشیا یا سطح وجود دارد. آگاهی از توزیع زمانی-مکانی دمای سطح زمین برای تعیین بیلان انرژی زمین، بررسی‌های هواشناسی و تبخیر–تعرق ضروری است. دمای سطح زمین تابعی از انرژی خالص در سطح زمین است که به مقدار انرژی رسیده به سطح زمین، گسیلندگی سطح، رطوبت و جریان هواسپهر بستگی دارد. این تحقیق در نظر دارد با رویکردی نوین براساس برون‌داد تصاویر سنجنده MODIS  ماهواره Terra ، وضعیت LST روز‌هنگام ایران را در ماه‌های مختلف سال بررسی کند.
 مواد و روش‌ها:
در این پژوهش از فرآورده پنجم سنجنده MODIS  ماهواره Terra موسوم به (MOD11C3 v005) با تفکیک فضایی 5×5 کیلومتر و دوره‌ زمانی روزانه که بعد از انجام پردازش‌های لازم تبدیل به داده‌های ماهانه شدند، استفاده شد. در این پژوهش با توجه به دقت قابل‌توجه الگوریتم فیزیک‌مبنای روز-شب از این روش برای واکاوی دمای روزهنگام سطح زمین ایران استفاده شده است. سپس رمزگشایی1 داده‌ها آرایه‌ای به ابعاد 62258×4855 به دست آمد. پهنه‌بندی دمای سطح زمین با استفاده از روش زمین‌آمار کریجینگ به واسطه کمترین مقدار خطا و بالاترین دقت در مناطق کوهستانی انجام شد.
نتایج و بحث:
مشخصات آماری دمای سطح زمین ایران طی ماه‌های مختلف نشان داد که بیشینه میانگین دمای سطح زمین ایران با 01/46 درجه سلسیوس در ماه ژوئیه رخ داده است. کمینه مقدار میانگین دمای سطح زمین کشور با 26/12 درجه سلسیوس در ژانویه اتفاق افتاده است. در دوره گرم سال و به‌ویژه پهنه‌های گرم ایران (سواحل جنوبی) تغییرپذیری کمتری در دمای کشور حاکم است که به تبع آن دمای سطح زمین کشور نیز تغییرات کمتری را از خود نشان می‌دهد و به تبع آن خود‌همبستگی فضایی کمتری را نیز باید در نیمه گرم سال شاهد باشیم که نشان از شرایط پایداری دمایی بیشتر در دوره گرم سال دارد. بررسی LST، در بازه زمانی 15 ساله از سال 2001 تا 2015 بر اساس برون‌داد سنجنده MODIS، برای ماه‌های مختلف سال نشان داد که توزیع دمای سطح زمین در ایران، به‌شدت متاثر از شرایط جغرافیایی، به‌ویژه عرض جغرافیایی و وضعیت توپوگرافیکی آن است.
نتیجه‌گیری:
از غرب به شرق و از شمال به جنوب ایران در تمام ماه‌های سال افزایش دمای سطح زمین مشاهده شد. کویر لوت به‌عنوان گرمترین منطقه در کشور، که در روزهای گرم سال دما تا 59 درجه سلسیوس در آن بالا می‌رود، در نظر گرفته شد. پردازش‌های مکانی دمای سطح زمین روز‌هنگام ایران نشان داد که دمای سطح زمین به‌شدت متاثر از عرض جغرافیایی و ارتفاع از سطح دریا است و شرایط توپوگرافیکی نقش مهمی در توزیع زمانی–مکانی LST ایفا می‌کند. این نکته با بررسی‌هایی که ابراز داشته‌اند هر قلمرو دمایی همخوانی زیادی با ویژگی‌های محیطی و جغرافیایی به‌ویژه ارتفاع، ویژگی‌های شیب زمین و عرض جغرافیایی خود دارد، همخوانی کامل دارد. اگرچه پهنه‌های دمایی ارائه‌شده برای ماه‌های مختلف سال از پیوستگی مکانی قابل‌توجهی برخوردارند، اما بخش‌هایی از یک خوشه دمایی به‌صورت جزایری درون پهنه‌های دیگر نمایان شده است که نشان از اثر شرایط محلی و توپوگرافی پیچیده در پیدایش این جزایر دمایی نسبت به اطراف خود دارد، که باعث اختلاف مکانی دما و افزایش میل به خوشه شدن دمای سطح زمین در ایران یا به عبارتی دیگر لانه‌گزینی آب‌وهوایی دارد.

عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of daytime land surface temperature in Iran based on the MODIS sensor output

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahmoud Ahmadi 1
  • AbbasAli Dadashi Roudbari 1
  • Hamzeh Ahmadi 2

1 Department of Climatology, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Climatology, Faculty of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction:
The air temperature parameter is one of the most important measures for identifying the climatic and environmental conditions of each region. Today, by using thermal infrared data, LST maps can be prepared without physical contact with objects or surfaces. Awareness of the spatial and temporal distribution of LST is essential to determine the land energy balance, the evapotranspiration and meteorology studies is essential. LST is a function of pure energy at the land surface which depends on the amount of energy reaching the land surface, surface emissivity, humidity, and air flow. The present study intends to investigate the state of Daytime LST in Iran in different months of the year based on the output of MODIS Terra images.Materials and methods: In this study, the fifth product of MODIS Terra called (Mod11C3 v005) with a spatial resolution of 5×5 kilometer and a Daytime  time period, which became monthly data after the necessary processing, was used. In this study, considering the significant precision of day-night-based physics algorithm, Wan et al. (2002) has used this method to study Daytime LST in Iran. Then, they were decoded and an array with the dimensions of 4855×62258 was obtained. Land surface temperature zoning was conducted by using the geostatistical method of kriging with the lowest error rate and the highest precision in mountainous areas.Results and discussion: The statistical characteristics of LST in Iran during different months showed that the highest average of LST in Iran with 46.1 ° C was in July. In the warm period of the year, and in particular, in the hot zones of Iran (the southern coasts) there is less variation in the temperature of the country, which consequently leads to less variation in LST in the country, and less spatial autocorrelation should be observed in the warm half of the year, which indicates a more stable temperature in the warm period of the year. The study of LST during the 15-year period from 2001 to 2015 based on the output of the MODIS sensor for different months of the year showed that the distribution of LST in Iran was severely affected by geographical conditions, especially its latitude and topographic condition.Conclusion: From the west to the east and from the north to the south, there was an increase in LST in all months of the year. The Lut desert is the warmest area in the country with the temperatures rising to 59° C in the warm days. The spatial processing of Daytime LST in Iran showed that LST was strongly affected by latitude and altitude, and the topographic conditions played an important role in the spatiotemporal distribution of LST, which is completely consistent with the studies conducted by who stated that each temperature range has a high degree of consistency with its environmental and geographical properties, in particular its elevation, latitude and slope characteristics.Although the temperature zones provided for the various months of the year have the considerable spatial continuity, the parts of a temperature cluster have appeared in the form of islands in other zones, indicating the effect of complex topographic and local conditions on the occurrence of these temperature islands compared to its surroundings, which causes a spatial variation in temperature and an increase in the desire to LST clustering in Iran, or in other words, to climatic implantation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • land surface temperature (LST)
  • MODIS Terra, Day-Night Algorithm, Iran

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