نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

مؤسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف:
چرخه حیات (LCA) رویکردی برای ارزیابی اثرات محیط زیستی تولید محصول یا انجام یک فعالیت است که بر اساس دو شاخص میزان مصرف منابع و انتشار انواع آلاینده‌ها به محیط زیست محاسبه می‌شود. بدین منظور، این پژوهش با هدف تعیین اثرات زیست‌محیطی نظام تولید ذرت در شرایط آب‌وهوایی مغان با استفاده از LCA انجام شد.
مواد و روش‌ها:
برای تجزیه‌و‌تحلیل اثرات زیست‌محیطی، از روش ISO14014 به ازای یک واحد کارکردی معادل با یک تن دانه استفاده شد. بدین ترتیب، میزان نهاده‌های ورودی (از جمله سوخت‌های فسیلی و کودهای معدنی)، تولید و انتقال نهاده‌های کشاورزی (نظیر تولید کودهای شیمیایی) و عملیات به‌کارگرفته‌شده در مزرعه (شامل شخم و برداشت) به ازای یک واحد کارکردی تعیین شد. در گام اول، ممیزی چرخه حیات (LCI)، میزان مصرف نهاده‌ها و انتشار آلاینده‌ها به ازای یک واحد کارکردی تعیین شد. در مرحله بعد، تأثیر چرخه حیات ارزیابی شد و بر اساس شاخص‌های اطلاعات مرحله قبل، در9 گروه تأثیر شامل گرمایش جهانی، اسیدیته، اوتریفیکاسیون، اکوسیستم خشکی و آبی، تغییر کاربری اراضی، تخلیه منابع فسیلی، تخلیه منابع فسفات، تخلیه منابع پتاسیم و تخلیه منابع آبی دسته‌بندی شدند. در نهایت، بعد از نرمال‌سازی و وزن‌دهی داده‌ها، شاخص نهایی برای این گروه‌های تأثیر برآورد شد. 
نتایج و بحث:
برآورد شاخص‌های زیست‌محیطی (EcoX) و یا تخلیه محیطی (RDI) برای گروه‌های تاثیر نشان داد که ارزش‌های EcoX و RDI برای گروه‌های تاثیر گرمایش جهانی، اسیدیته، اوتریفیکاسیون اکوسیستم خشکی و آبی، تغییر کاربری اراضی، تخلیه منابع فسیلی، تخلیه منابع فسفات، تخلیه منابع پتاسیم و تخلیه منابع آبی به ترتیب برابر با 04/0، 29/0، 50/0، 11/0، 03/0، 27/2، 75/0، 03/0 و 56/0 به دست آمد. بنابراین، می‌توان نتیجه گرفت در میان شاخص‌های زیست‌محیطی بیشترین سهم نظام تولیدی ذرت به ترتیب برای گروه‌های مؤثر اوتریفیکاسیون اکوسیستم خشکی و اسیدیته و در میان گروه‌های تخلیه منابع، تخلیه منابع فسیلی بیشترین تأثیر سوء زیست‌محیطی را در تولید ذرت در منطقه مغان داشتند.
 نتیجه‌گیری:
با توجه به نتایج و به منظور کاهش اثرات زیست‌محیطی نظام تولید ذرت چنین به نظر می‌رسد که می‌توان از روش‌های مختلف مدیریت نظام زراعی همچون کاربرد نهاده‌های آلی، تناوب، گیاهان تثبیت‌کننده نیتروژن و خاک‌ورزی حداقل بر مبنای بهره‌گیری از اصول کم‌نهاده برای کاهش این اثرات زیست‌محیطی بهره جست.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Life cycle assessment (LCA) for maize production system under Moghan climatic conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammadreza Shiri
  • Reza Ataei
  • Farid Golzardi

Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction: Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a methodology for assessing the environmental impacts associated with a product, process or activity, by identifying, quantifying and evaluating the resources consumed, and all emissions and wastes released into the environment. This study examined the environmental impacts for Maize production under Moghan climatic conditions by using LCA methodology.Materials and methods: The analysis considered the entire system, which was required to produce one ton of maize grain. For this purpose, a functional unit was assumed based on ISO14040 methods. It included the extraction of raw materials (e. g. fossil fuels and minerals), the production and transportation of farming inputs (e. g. fertilizers) and all agricultural operations in the field (e. g. tillage and harvest). In a first step, all emissions and the consumption of resources connected to the different processes were listed in a Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) and related to a common unit, which is one ton of grain. Next a Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) was done, in which the inventory data were aggregated into indicators for environmental effects, which included climate change (global warming), acidification and eutrophication (terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems), land use, phosphate resource depletion, potassium resource depletion and water resource depletion. After normalization and weighting of the indicator values it was possible to calculate summarizing indicators for resource depletion and environmental impacts.Results and discussion: The values for climate change (global warming), acidification and eutrophication (terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems), land use, phosphate resource depletion, potassium resource depletion and water resource depletion were etismated 0.04, 0.29, 0.50, 0.11, 0.03, 2.27, 0.75, 0.03 and 0.56, respectively. So, among environmental effect categories (EcoX) the highest environmental impacts were observed in eutrophication terrestrial and acidification categories and among resource deplation categories (RDI), the depletion of fossil resources had the greatest negative environmental impact for the maize production in Moghan region.Conclusion: It seems that management systems based on low input system including organic fertilizers and minimum tillage could be regarded as alternative management strategies to reduce problematic environmental impacts.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • environmental impacts
  • Life cycle impact assessment
  • Emission
  • Resource use

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