نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، دانشکده علوم زمین، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

2 گروه جغرافیا و ژئومورفولوژی، دانشکده علوم زمین، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف:
مشکلات محیط زیستی از اساسی‌ترین مسائل شهرهای بزرگ، کلان‌شهرها، حاصل تعارض و تقابل آن‌ها با محیط طبیعی است زیرا توسعه شهری ضرورتاً با تسلط ساختمان‌ها، صنایع، حمل‌ونقل و فعالیت‌های اقتصادی بر فضاهای طبیعی همراه است. ارزیابی راهبردی محیط زیستی فرآیند جامع، فرمول‌بندی شده و سامانمند ارزیابی اثرات محیط زیستی سیاست‌ها، طرح‌ها، برنامه‌ها به همراه گزینه‌های آن‌ها مشتمل بر تهیه گزارش، با استفاده از یافته‌های ارزیابی و کاربرد آن‌ها در فرآیند تصمیم سازی است.
مواد و روش‌ها:
جهت بررسی و ارزیابی راهبردی پیامدهای محیطی ناشی از توسعه شهری از روش توصیفی و تحلیلی استفاده شد، بر اساس مفاهیم روش ارزیابی محیط زیستی راهبردی 1SEA با بهره‌گیری از تکنیک‌های آماری و پژوهش عملیاتی MADM) ( مانند فرآیند تحلیل سلسله مراتبی (AHP) پرسشنامه پژوهش، جهت وزن دهی و ارزش‌گذاری مناسب، بین ۱۲۰ نفراز کارشناسان متخصص مرتبط با مدیریت و محیط‌زیست شهری که با روش نمونه‌گیری غیر احتمالی گلوله برفی انتخاب شدند مانند شهرداری، محیط‌زیست، استانداری، مسکن- شهرسازی و... توزیع و تکمیل گردید، درنهایت نتایج حاصله توسط نرم‌افزار Expert choice) ( توزیع، تجزیه‌وتحلیل گردید.
نتایج و بحث:
هدف فرآیند  SEAشناسایی نقاط قوت و ضعف اثرات محیط زیستی یک برنامه جامع و اجرایی و کاهش اثرات منفی در اجرای طرح است. جهت ارزیابی راهبردی دو معیار و ده زیر معیار انتخاب گردید که پس از بررسی و ارزیابی زیر معیارهای مربوط به محیط‌زیست، دفع بهداشتی پساب و پسماند با وزن ۴۱۷/؛ و کاهش آلودگی هوا با وزن ۲۴۵/. دارای بیشترین اهمیت و در اولویت‌های برتر قرار دارند و زیرمعیارهای تأکید بر ارتقاء کمیت و کیفیت منابع آب با وزن نسبی ۲۰۸/. احیاء فضای سبز یا مراتع ازدست‌رفته با وزن نسبی ۷۷/؛ و تأکید برافزایش کیفیت خاک و حاصلخیزی آن منابع آب با وزن نسبی ۵۳/. به ترتیب در اولویت‌های سوم تا پنجم سطحتوجه قراردادند. در بین زیرمعیارهای مربوط به مؤلفه کالبدی، تحقق برنامه شهر سالم، افزایش دسترسی به فضای باز و سبز و توجه به معماری شهرسازی بومی با وزن‌های ۳۴/۰، ۲۶۴/۰ و ۱۵۹/۰ در اولویت‌های اول، دوم و سوم قرار دارند. معیارهای ارتقاء کیفیت سکونتگاه‌های غیررسمی با وزن نسبی ۹۴/. تحقق تراکم بهینه با وزن نسبی ۸۵/؛ و توزیع بهینه کاربری‌ها در سطح شهر با وزن نسبی ۵۸/. در اولویت‌های سوم تا ششم قرار دارند.
 نتیجه‌گیری:
شهر زاهدان دارای محلات حاشیه‌نشین مانند شیرآباد، کریم‌آباد، بابائیان و ... است اکثر این محلات از زیرساخت‌های رفاهی مانند آب، خدمات بهداشتی و... محروم می‌باشند، ساختار و بافت زمین‌شناسی خاک به‌گونه‌ای است که امکان احداث چاه‌های جذبی وجود ندارد، طبق نتایج ارزیابی راهبردی در این تحقیق، آلودگی‌های محیط‌زیست شهری مانند دفع بهداشتی پساب – پسماند، آلودگی هوا، آلودگی آب، احیا و دسترسی به فضای باز و سبز شهری، دسترسی به شهر سالم و زیست پذیر، توجه به معماری - شهرسازی بومی و... که همگی از پیامدهای توسعه شتابان شهرهای امروزی می‌باشند، ضرورت توجه بیشتر مسئولان، برنامه ریزان و مدیران شهری را جهت جلوگیری از تخریب بیشتر محیط‌زیست شهری و دسترسی عادلانه شهروندان به شاخص‌های رفاهی را لازم و ضروری می‌شمارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Strategic environmental assessment in urban development Case study: (Zahedan city)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zohreh Fanni 1
  • Mohammad Amin Hounakzahi 1
  • Manijeh Ghahroudi 2

1 Department of Geography and Urban Planning, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Geography and Geomorphology, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction: Environmental problems are one of the most important issues in major cities, metropolises and it is the result of confliction with the natural environment because urban development is necessarily associated with the domination of buildings, industries, transportation, and economical activities on natural spaces. Strategic Environmental Assessment A comprehensive, formulated and systematic environmental impact assessment of policies, plans, and plans with their options include reporting through their findings and their application in the decision-making process.Materials and methods: A descriptive and analytical method was used to study and evaluate the strategic environmental impacts of urban development, Based on the concepts of the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), using MADM statistical techniques and operational research, such as Analytic Hierarchy Process Analyzer (AHP),for proper emphasizing and valuation between experts (whose content was calculated using the Cochran formula) related to urban management and environment such as municipality, environment, governorate, natural resources, etc. were distributed and completed. Finally, the results were analyzed by Expert choice software.Results and discussion: The aim of the SEA process is to recognize the advantages and disadvantages of the environmental effects of a comprehensive plan and minimize the negative impacts of the implementation of the plan. For strategic evaluation, 2 criteria and 10 sub-criteria were selected which after assessing and evaluating the environmental criteria, sanitary exclusion of wastewater and residues were weighed 0.417 and reducing air pollution with a weight of 0.245 are the most important and in the top priorities, and sub-criteria of emphasis on improving the quantity and quality of water resources with a relative weight of 0.208, restoration of green space or missed pastures with relative weight of 0.077 and emphasis on the increased in soil quality and its fertility with a relative weight of.053 are in the third to fifth priority levels, respectively. Among the non-criteria related to the physical component, the realization of a healthy city plan, increased in access to open space and green, and payingattention to the urban architecture of the native with weights of 0.34, 0.264 and 0.159 are in the first, second and third, respectively. Quality improvement measurements for informal settlements with a relative weight of 0.094, realization of optimum density with relative weight of 0.085 and the optimal distribution of applications in the city with a relative weight of 0.058 are in the third to sixth priority.Conclusion: Zahedan has suburban neighborhoods such as Shir Abad, Karim Abad, Babaeyan, etc. Most of these neighborhoods are deprived of welfare infrastructure such as water, sanitation and... The structure and texture of soil geology are such that there is no possibility of constructing wells, According to the results of strategic assessment, urban environmental pollution such as sanitary wastewater-residues, pollution, air pollution, water pollution, restoration and access to open and green urban areas, access to a healthy and habitable city, attention to architecture - local urbanism and ... which all of them are the consequence of accelerated development of modern cities. Therefore, more attention of officials, planners and urban managers is required to prevent more urban environmental degradation, and it is necessary to provide citizens with fair access to welfare indicators.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Urban physical development
  • Strategic environmental assessment (SEA)
  • Zahedan

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