نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه محیط زیست، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و محیط زیست، دانشگاه ملایر، ملایر، ایران

2 گروه محیط زیست، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و محیط زیست، دانشگاه ملایر

3 پژوهشکده چرخه سوخت هسته ایی، پژوهشگاه علوم و فنون هسته ایی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف:
با وجود پیشرفت های اخیر در افزایش کیفیت هوا، بخش عمدهای از جمعیت در مناطق شهری ساکن هستند کهاستانداردهای بین المللی را رعایت نکرده و دستورالعمل های سازمان بهداشت جهانی را درباره بهداشت عمومی رعایت نمی کنند. در یک دههاخیر، تحقیقات نشان داده است که آلودگی هوا به ذرات PM نه تنها در مرگومیر، بلکه در بروز بسیاری از بیماریها نقش داشته و پیامدهایمنفی زیادی را بدنبال دارد.
مواد و روش ها:
ابتدا نتایج مطالعات صورت گرفته در این زمینه را مورد ارزیابی و تحلیل قرار داده و در ادامه با نمونه برداری از ذراتاتمسفری و بررسی آنها با استفاده از تکنیک SEM به شناخت ماهیت ظاهری و ترکیب شیمیایی آنها پرداخته شد. از اینرو با استفاده از9 متر مکعب بر دقیقه را از فیلتر شیشه ای عبور دادیم. سپس نمونه / یک نمونه بردار حجم بالا، به مدت 24 ساعت حجم هوای با مقدار 5فیلتر تهیه شده در سازمان انرژی اتمی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت.
نتایج و بحث:
نتایج بررسی نشان داده است که هیچ مرز مشخصی برای غلظت ذرات در محیط وجود ندارد و ذرات نزدیک به .52PM درحد غلظت پس زمینه نیز با تاثیرات بر سلامتی رابطه خطی خواهد داشت. با توجه به حجم تاثیرات مضر بر سلامتی تلاش های زیادی برایشناخت PM در محیط صورت گرفته است. این تحقیقات به صورت اپیدمیولوژیکی شامل شناخت سمیت ذرات، مسیرهای مکانیکی انتقالذرات و تعیین چگونگی وضع قوانین برای ایجاد هوای پاک بوده اند. با توجه به نتایج حاصل از بررسی مورفولوژی و ترکیب شیمیایی ذراتاتمسفری منشأ درون شهری ذرات محرز بوده و منابع متحرک مهم ترین تولید کننده های این ذرات در شهر تهران هستند.
نتیجه گیری:
بهبود کیفیت هوا چالش مهمی در سالهای اخیر بوده که بدون راهحل نیست. انتقال شواهد و مدارک علمی صحیح، واقع بینانهو موثر بدون شک به شکل بالقوه میتواند در کاهش آلودگی هوا نقش داشته باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of the source and health effects of atmospheric aerosols in Tehran city

نویسندگان [English]

  • Balal Oroji 1
  • Eisa Solgi 2
  • Asghar Sadighzadeh 3

1 Department of Environmental, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Malayer University, Malayer, Iran

2 Department of Environmental, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Malayer University, Malayer, Iran

3 School of nuclear fuel cycle, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction:
Despite past improvements in air quality, very large parts of the population in urban areas breathe air that does not meet European standards let alone the health-based World Health Organisation Air Quality Guidelines. Over the last 10 years, there has been a substantial increase in findings that particulate matter (PM) air pollution is not only exerting a greater impact on established health end­points, but is also associated with a broader number of disease outcomes. 
Materials and methods:
Recently, relatively good research has been done on the understanding of the nature of particles and their role in creating a problem in humans. A comprehensive study of this research and the analysis of their results, along with the comparison of the results of the research on health impact assessment were evaluated in Tehran. 
Results and discussion:
Data strongly suggest that effects have no threshold within the studied range of ambient concentrations, can occur at levels close to PM2.5 background concentrations and that they follow a mostly linear concentration-response function. Hav­ing firmly established this significant public health problem, there has been an enormous effort to identify what it is in ambient PM that affects health and to understand the underlying biological basis of toxicity by identifying mechanistic pathways-information that in tum will inform policy makers how best to legislate for cleaner air. Another intervention in moving towards a healthier environment depends upon the achieving the right public attitude and behavior by the use of optimal air pollution moni­toring, forecasting and reporting that exploits increas­ingly sophisticated information systems. 
Conclusion:
Improving air quality is a considerable but not an intractable challenge. Translating the correct scientific evidence into bold, realistic and effective policies undisputedly has the potential to reduce air pollution so that it no longer poses a damaging and costly toll on public health. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • PM toxicity
  • Public awareness
  • Aerosols
  • Air pollution
  • Air quality

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