نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه تنوع زیستی و مدیریت اکوسیستم ها، پژوهشکده علوم محیطی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

2 گروه علوم محیط زیست، انستیتو تکنولوژی فدرال زوریخ، دانشگاه زوریخ ( ETH Zurich ) ، سوئیس

چکیده

سابقه و هدف:
گوشت‌خواران به خاطر جایگاه‌شان در رأس هرم غذایی همواره در معرض تهدید قرار دارند. امروزه حدود 65% از گوشت‌خواران در فهرست سرخ اتحادیه جهانی حفاظت، در رده خطر انقراض یا آسیب پذیر قرار گرفته‌اند .در مقیاس جهانی در راسته گوشت‌خواران، خانواده کفتارها از خانواده­هایی با تعداد گونه اندک (4 گونه) محسوب می­شود. کفتار راه‌‌راه (Hyaena hyaena) تنها عضو این خانواده در ایران است و در رتبه نزدیک به تهدید ( (NTفهرست سرخ  IUCNقرار دارد. هدف از این پژوهش تهیه مدل توزیع گونه‌ای کفتار راه‌راه به‌عنوان یک گونه با پراکنش جغرافیایی گسترده در ایران است.
مواد و روش‌ها:
با استفاده از لایه‌های نوزده متغیر اقلیمی همبستگی بین متغییرها برای گونه کفتار راه‌راه تجزیه‌و‌تحلیل شد و متغیرهایی که همبستگی بیش از 75/0 داشتند، حذف شدند. در نهایت هشت مدل توزیع گونه‌ای در بسته آماری sdm (GLM, GAM, BRT, SVM, RF, MARS, CART, FDA) در نرم‌افزار R مورد استفاده قرار گرفت. با توجه به اینکه مدل‌های توزیع گونه‌ای همواره در معرض عدم قطعیت قرار دارند و این موضوعی است که نمی‌توان از آن چشم‌پوشی کرد، یک راه‌حل  برای برآورد تغییرات بین مدلی و کاهش عدم‌قطعیت در پیش‌بینی، استفاده از پیش‌بینی‌های ترکیبی به جای استفاده از یک روش مدل‌سازی واحد است. از این‌رو پس از تعیین پتانسیل‌های زیستگاهی کفتار راه‌راه توسط هشت مدل مذکور، بهترین مناطق برای پراکنش این گونه در ایران با بهره‌گیری از مدل ترکیبی (Ensemble) مشخص شد.
نتایج و بحث:
یافـتـه‌هـای ایـن بررسی نشان داد متغیر‌های دمای متوسط سالانه، بارش فصلی، بارش گرم‌ترین فصل از اهـمـیـت بالایی برخوردارند و در مجموع مدل‌های FDA ، GAM، BRT،CART، GLM دارای قابلیت اعتماد در سطح خوب، مدل MARS دارای قابلیت اعتماد در سطح عالی و مدل‌های SVM و RF دارای قابلیت اعتماد بسیار عالی هستند. نتایج نشان داد مدل‌هایGLM, GAM, BRT, MARS,CART, RF عموماً مناطق مرکزی ایران و مدل‌های SVM و FDA مناطق حاشیه‌ای دریای خزر را به‌عنوان بهترین مناطق برای توزیع گونه‌ای کفتار راه‌راه پیش‌بینی کرده‌اند، تفاوت در نتایج پیش‌بینی مدل‌ها تایید‌کننده عدم قطعیت بین مدل‌ها است از این‌رو ضرورت استفاده از روش ترکیبی آشکار می‌شود. نتایج مدل ترکیبی نشان داد مناسب‌ترین مناطق برای پراکنش کفتار راه‌راه مناطق نیمه‌خشک و استپی مرکزی ایران است.
نتیجه‌گیری:
به تازگی از  SDMsبرای تخمین گستره حضور گونه‌ها و همچنین کشف اثرات تغییر اقلیم بر توزیع آنها استفاده می‌شود و در میان این مد‌ل‌ها استفاده از رویکرد مدل‌سازی ترکیبی راه‌حل مناسبی برای کاهش عدم‌قطعیت پیش‌بینی در مدل‌سازی توزیع گونه‌ای محسوب می‌شود، بنابراین نتایج این پژوهش علاوه بر پیش‌بینی توزیع مکانی کفتار راه‌راه به نوبه خود می‌تواند به اقدامات مدیریتی حفاظت این گونه نیز کمک کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Species distribution potential of striped hyaena (Hyaena hyaena) in response to climate change in Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Faraham Ahmadzadeh 1
  • Elham Ebrahimi 1
  • Babak Naimi 2

1 Environmental Sciences Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland

چکیده [English]

Introduction:
Carnivores have always been exposed to threatening processes because of their placement at the top of the food pyramid. Nowadays, approximately 65% of carnivores are listed as Critically Endangered or Vulnerable in the IUCN Red List of threatened species. On a global scale, in order Carnivora, the Hyaenidae family is the smallest with only four species. Hyaena hyaena is the only member of the Hyaenidae faimly in Iran, which is listed as “Near Threatened” (NT) in the IUCN Red List. The current study aimed to model the species distribution of the striped hyaena (Hyaena hyaena), which has a wide distribution in Iran. 
Materials and methods:
Using nineteen layers of climatic variables, the correlations between those variables were analyzed and then highly correlated variables were excluded from the modeling process. Finally, eight species distribution models from the sdm package (GLM, GAM, BRT, SVM, RF, MARS, CART, and FDA) in R software were used. Given that the output of species distribution models are often uncertain, which is an undeniable fact, one possible solution to estimate the difference between projections and reduce the uncertainty, is the use of ensemble  prediction system instead of using a single modeling method. Therefore, after determining the potential habitats of the Hyaena hyaena with those eight mentioned models and by using the ensemble  prediction system, the best regions for the distribution of this species in Iran were estimated. 
Results and discussion:
The results of this study showed that annual mean temperature, seasonal precipitation and precipitation of the warmest season have the most influence on the distribution of Hyaena hyaena. In general, FDA, GAM, BRT, CART and GLM models are fairly reliable, the MARS model is very reliable, and SVM and RF models are completely reliable. The results showed that the GLM, GAM, BRT, MARS, CART, RF models demonstrate that the suitable areas for Hyaena hyaena are generally the central regions of Iran, while the SVM and FDA models predicted the southern margin of the Caspian sea to make the best regions for the distribution of this species.
 Conclusion:
The difference in the predictions that each model makes confirms the uncertainty between models. Therefore, the necessity of using Ensemble method is revealed. The results of the Ensemble  model showed that the most suitable regions for the Hyaena hyaena species distribution are semi-arid and central steppe regions of Iran.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Striped hyaena (Hyaena hyaena)
  • Species distribution models
  • Sdm packges
  • climate change
  • Ensemble Model

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