نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه معماری منظر، دانشکده معماری، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 گروه معماری منظر، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

3 گروه مدیریت تولید، دانشکده مدیریت، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف:
امروزه توجه به کاربران طرح در پروژه‌های معماری اهمیت بیشتری یافته و بعد اجتماعی به‌عنوان یکی از مهم‌ترین ابعاد تاثیرگذار بر طرح مورد توجه طراحان قرار گرفته است. اهمیت این موضوع در طراحی معماری منظر، با توجه به بعد ذهنی و مخاطب‌محور بودن آن، دوچندان است. یکی از مهم‌ترین رویکردها در معماری که به مخاطبان طرح توجه دارد، رویکرد طراحی مشارکتی است. مبحث طراحی مشارکتی، اولین بار در سال 1980 در آمریکا در اعتراض به قدرت زیاد طراحان و بی‌توجهی آنها به نیازهای حقیقی مردم در پروژه‌‌های معماری مطرح شد. به‌تدریج طراحی مشارکتی در سایر کشورها نیز رواج یافت و در دهه 1990 شاهد اوج اهمیت آن در حوزه معماری بودیم. در این زمان منابع متعدد اثرات گسترده و تکنیک‌های این رویکرد را بررسی کردند و بدین ترتیب انتظارات زیادی نسبت به طراحی مشارکتی پدید آمد. با عدم تحقق تمام این انتظارات در پروژه‌های طراحی مشارکتی اجرا‌شده در آن زمان، موضوع موانع طراحی مشارکتی طرح شد. با این حال نوشتارهای زیادی طراحی مشارکتی را لازمة دنیای امروز دانسته‌اند. اگرچه طراحی مشارکتی در معنای جدید آن و مباحث نظری مطرح‌شده در این زمینه از آمریکا آغاز شد ولی در ایران سابقه طراحی مشارکتی به‌طور سنتی به سال‌ها پیش برمی‌گردد. امروزه پروژه‌های طراحی مشارکتی در شهرهای ایران به‌صورت محدود و اغلب غیرموثر انجام می‌شود. در این راستا، هدف این مقاله بررسی موانع استفاده از طراحی مشارکتی منظر و تعیین درجه اهمیت آنها در ایران از دیدگاه متخصصان امر است.
مواد و روش‌ها:
در این راستا، ابتدا موانع اصلی استفاده از رویکرد طراحی مشارکتی منظر، از منابع متعدد استخراج و دسته‌بندی شده است و سپس به کمک روش دلفی و انجام مصاحبه‌هایی با معماران منظر، میزان تأثیر موانع استخراج‌شده بر استفاده از رویکرد طراحی مشارکتی منظر در ایران، ارزیابی و اولویت‌بندی شد. اعضای پانل دلفی شامل ده نفر از متخصصان منظر، شش نفر از متخصصان معماری و چهار نفر از متخصصان شهرسازی شاغل در دانشگاه‌ها، پژوهشکده‌ها یا شرکت‌های مرتبط با طراحی معماری منظر هستند.
نتایج و بحث:
در نهایت گروه موانع سیاسی و تکنیکی به‌عنوان مهم‌ترین دسته موانع منظر مشارکتی شناخته شدند و در زیرشاخه‌های این موانع، بی‌علاقگی کارفرما در شرکت در فرایند مشارکتی طراحی، به‌عنوان مهم‌ترین مانع با ضریب روایی صددرصد و کمبود وقت آزاد جامعه معاصر به‌عنوان کم‌‌اهمیت‌ترین مانع شناخته شده است. در میان زیرشاخه‌های موانع تکنیکی، به ترتیب مرحله زمانی مشارکت مردم در فرایند طراحی مشارکتی، فقدان رابطه باز و مستقیم بین مردم، طراح و کارفرما با ضریب روایی 60 درصد و تجربه و مهارت کم متخصصان در فرایند طراحی مشارکتی و دانش و مهارت کم مردم شرکت‌کننده در فرایند طراحی مشارکتی با ضریب روایی 40 درصد و از میان زیرشاخه‌های موانع اجرایی، عدم ‌مطلوبیت سیستم‌های اداری و اجرایی با ضریب روایی 80 درصد و زمان‌بر بودن شرکت دادن مردم در فرایند طراحی منظر مشارکتی با ضریب روایی 40 درصد به‌عنوان مهمترین موانع شناخته شده‌اند.
نتیجه‌گیری:
با توجه به اینکه موانع تکنیکی از دیدگاه متخصصان بسیار مهم ارزیابی شده است، باید ارزیابی مدونی درباره این تکنیک‌ها انجام شود. توصیه می‌شود این تحقیقات دارای جنبه‌های نظری و عملی باشند و طی پژوهش‌ها به مسائل مرحله زمانی مشارکت مردم و وجود رابطه باز و مستقیم بین مردم، طراح و کارفرما توجه بیشتری شود. همچنین پیشنهاد می‌شود تحقیقاتی برای ارزیابی روش‌های طراحی مشارکتی به‌کار گرفته‌شده صورت گیرد. بدین ترتیب می‌توان از تجربیات کشورهای غربی در طراحی مشارکتی مدرن استفاده کرد و از سوی دیگر برخی سنت‌های گذشته ایران که مرتبط با طراحی مشارکتی بوده را احیا کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The barriers of participatory landscape design approaches based on experts’ opinions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahda Foroughi 1
  • Saeid Norouzian-Maleki 2
  • Moeen Hajimaghsoudi 3

1 Department of Landscape Architecture, School of Architecture, College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Production Management, Faculty of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction: Nowadays, it is not acceptable to design an unchangeable plan, especially in landscape architecture where end-users should be at the center of any design. Much literature discusses the influence of public involvement in landscape design process and its necessity in today’s life. However, the implementation of public participatory design has proved to be challenging and even problematic in many cases in the world. Initiated, civic leaders and professional experts generally develop and manage open space planning and design with a relatively limited depth of public participation considering what is possible. The range of creativity from those who participate is limited for a range of reasons, premises and constraints, which will be discussed in the literature review. The need exists for landscape architects to work from an understanding of the ranges of participation and the ranges of creativity that can be elicited in order to deliver sustainable designs. For several decades the theories of public participation were discussed in Europe and America, but the application of this in many other countries remained under-researched. Of specific interest in this article, public participatory design has been used in Iran for the past few centuries (until a few decades ago) as a common solution. This practice has continued in many villages, however, public participation is not practiced often in Iran’s cities anymore and the few attempts at using it were not successful. So the aim of this article is to find the public participation’s barriers specifically in Iran and to classifying these barriers by Iranians architecture designers. Materials and methods: A mixture of qualitative and quantitative methods has been used in this study. First, main barriers were extracted from different literature, then they classified to five groups contains technical, cultural, social, economic and political. After classifying the barriers, these barriers have been assessed by interviewing Iranian landscape designers, with the help of Delphi method. The Delphi method is a structured communication technique or method, originally developed as a systematic, interactive forecasting method which relies on a panel of experts. The experts answer questionnaires in two or more rounds. After each round, a facilitator or change agent provides an anonymous summary of the experts’ forecasts from the previous round as well as the reasons they provided for their judgments. Thus, experts are encouraged to revise their earlier answers in light of the replies of other members of their panel. It is believed that during this process the range of the answers will decrease and the group will converge towards the "correct" answer. Finally, the process is stopped after a predefined stop criterion and the mean or median scores of the final rounds determine the results. In this research Panel of Delphi involves ten landscape architectures, six architectures and four urban designers whom work at laboratories and companies which depended to landscape architecture. Their assessment emerged in a table and its content validity ratio (CVR) was calculated and interpreted. Results and discussion: Main barriers were extracted from different literature, then they classified to five groups contains technical, cultural, social, economic and political. Each of these groups contain a few barriers and there are twenty two elements entirely. Technical barriers contain finding the right members who represent people and end users, the age of step which participating people in the design process, lack of experts knowledge and experience in public participatory landscape design, lack of people knowledge and experience in public participatory landscape design, inefficiency of public participatory landscape design methods, uncertainty of  how people ideas and decides affect the last decision and the design and not being a free and comfortable relationship between end users, employers and designers. Executive barriers contain increasing argues between participants of public participatory landscape design, inefficiency of executive systems and public participatory design time consuming. Cultural barriers contain unwillingness of people to involve in participatory design process, unwillingness of employers to involve in participatory design process, unwillingness of designers to involve in participatory design process. Social barriers contain lack of free time of contemporary society, divergent orientations and interests of contemporary society, division of contemporary society from social activity, lack of people power to prove what they want in participatory design process, selfishness at contemporary society and prioritization at making decision which depends on social outreach.Economic barrier contains high expense of participatory design process. Political barriers contain panic from public participation and wrong and inefficient policies. At last, technical and political groups of barriers got the highest rank in respect of experts’ opinions. From twenty two barriers, respectively, unwillingness of employers to involve in participatory design process, the age of step which participating people in the design process, not being a free and comfortable relationship between end users, employers and designers, wrong and inefficient policies and lack of people power to prove what they want in participatory design process distinguished as the most important barriers.  Conclusion: Based on the research foundations, we presented a few suggestions to improve participatory design process in Iran. In one hand, unwillingness of employers to involve in public participatory design process distinguishes as the first and main barrier. In Iran employers of public landscape designs are almost government. In the other hand, wrong and inefficient policies distinguish as the third barrier and in Iran this refers to government regulations. So these statements emerge the important role of government and its regulations in improving participatory design process and it shows that there is a need of promotion and correction in government’s regulations and policies. Developed countries have special regulations and policies which encourage public participatory landscape design and guide the process to be more efficient.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Participatory landscape design
  • Landscape architecture
  • Public spaces
  • Delphi Method

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