نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زیست شناسی، دانشکده علوم، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

2 گروه مرتعداری، دانشکده مرتع و آبخیزداری، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف:
بررسی تنوع گونه‌ای و تنوع عملکردی، نقشی مهم در شناخت عملکرد و خدمات اکوسیستم دارد و نوع پاسخ به تغییرات محیطی را نشان می‌دهد. تنوع عملکردی به محدوده و ارزش صفاتی از موجودات اشاره می‌کند که روی خصوصیات اکوسیستم تاثیر دارد و به شکل‌های مختلف از جمله تعداد و فراوانی نسبی گروه‌های عمل‌کردی معرفی می‌شود. این مطالعه با هدف شناخت عملکرد اکوسیستم و ارزیابی تنوع عملکردی بین مناطق و بر اساس تعیین گروه‌های عملکردی موجود در مناطق امن پارک ملی قمیشلو (باغک، آغل­­جنی، کورلیاس، کهوک، تنگ نجف­آبادی، و تنگ ورپشت) انجام شد.
مواد و روش ­ها:
برای این منظور، ۸ صفت کمی و ۴ صفت کیفی انتخاب گردید. به منظور تعیین گروه‌های عملکردی، ابتدا ماتریس صفت در گونه تهیه شد و تجزیه و تحلیل خوشه‌ای به روش Ward و فاصله تشابه گاور۱ در نرم‌افزار InfoStat انجام گرفت. پس از تعیین غنای گروه‌های عملکردی، تنوع گروه‌های عملکردی با کمک نرم‌افزارهایSDR۴  و FDiversity آنالیز گردید.
نتایج و بحث:
گروه‌های عملکردی عمده مناطق عبارت بودند از: گیاهان کامه‌فیت که بیشتر عناصر غذایی برگ را به ساختار دفاعی اختصاص داده اند، همی‌کریپتوفیت‌ها که سطح برگ بالایی داشته و در کسب نور موفق‌ترند و تروفیت‌ها که برگ‌هایی با طول عمر کوتاه دارند. نتایج نشان داد که غنای گروه‌های عمل‌کردی در شش منطقه یکسان است (سه گروه عملکردی) ولی به دلیل تفاوت در ترکیب گونه‌ای و صفات غالب گروه‌ها، تنوع عمل‌کردی منطقه کهوک بالاتر بود. طبق نتایج بدست‌آمده، چون بیشتر شاخص ­های تنوع عمل‌کردی از بیش از یک صفت استفاده می­کنند تا کارکردهای مختلف گیاهان را توصیف کنند، شاخص­هایی که عموماً برای اندازه­گیری تنوع گونه ­ای استفاده می­ شوند (سیمپسون، شانن واینر و ...) کاربرد ندارند.
نتیجه­ گیری:
در تعیین تنوع عملکردی، بهتر است علاوه‌بر تعیین غنای گروه‌های عمل‌کردی، از شاخص‌های عددی تنوع عمل‌کردی (شاخص میانگین وزنی جامعه و ...) استفاده شود تا نسبت به عملکرد اکوسیستم مورد مطالعه، اطلاعات مفیدی به‌دست آید.  

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of plant functional diversity based on functional groups identification within the safe areas of the Ghamishloo National Park, Isfahan province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamid Reza Akkafi 1
  • Hamid Ejtehadi 1
  • Adel Sepehry 2

1 Department of Biology, Faculty of science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

2 Department of Rangeland Management, College of Range and Watershed Management, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction:
Study of functional and species diversity plays an important role in recognizing ecosystem function and services and is shown the type of response to environmental changes. Functional diversity refers to range and values of organism traits that affects ecosystems properties and is introduced in various ways such as number and proportional abundance of functional groups.
Materials and Methods:
This study was carried out based on identifying functional groups in safe regions of Ghamishloo National Park (Baghak, Aghel geni, Korelias, Kahvak, Tange Najaf abadi and Tange Varposht) to recognition of ecosystem function and evaluation of functional diversity between regions. For this purpose, eight quantitative traits and four qualitative traits were selected. In order to determin functional groups, at first, species – trait matrix was prepared and then, clustering analysis was carried out by Ward method and Gower similarity distance by InfoStat software. After determining the richness of functional groups, diversity of functional groups was analyzed by SDR۴ and FDiversity software.
Results and discussion:
Main functional groups of the regions were: Chamaephytes plants that have been devoted most of the leaf nutrients to the defense structure, Hemicrypyophytes plants that their leaf area is high and are more successful in light acquisition and Terophytes plants that have leaves with a short life span. The results showed that functional groups richness is the same in the six regions (three functional groups), but, because of the difference in species composition and dominant traits of the groups, functional diversity of Kahvak region was higher. According to the results, as most functional diversity indices use more than one trait to describe the various plant performances, indices that used to measurement of species diversity (Shannon Wiener, Simpson …) are inefficient.
Conclusion:
In determining of functional diversity, it is better to use numerical functional diversity indices (Community-Weighted Mean index, …) in addition to determining the functional groups richness to get more useful information about ecosystem function.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Functional diversity
  • Community Weighted Mean Index
  • Functional groups
  • Ecosystem function
  • Ghamishloo National Park

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