نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه جنگلداری، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ساری، ایران.

2 گروه خاکشناسی مناطق معتدله، دانشگاه جورج آگوست گوتینگن، گوتینگن، آلمان.

چکیده

سابقه و هدف:
با توجه به افزایش استفاده از سوخت‌های فسیلی و کودهای شیمیایی، مقدار ورود ترکیبات نیتروژن‌دار به جو به ویژه در مناطق صنعتی افزایش یافته است. از جمله پیامدهای افزایش ترکیبات نیتروژن‌دار در جو، ایجاد پدیده ته‌نشست نیتروژن است. ته‌نشست نیتروژن اشاره به فرآیندی دارد که طی آن ترکیبات نیتروژنی موجود در هوا بر سطح جامد قرار می‌گیرند. با توجه به کمبود اطلاعات در ارتباط با اثرات ته‌نشست نیتروژن بر ویژگی­های خاک جنگل، هدف از این پژوهش بررسی اثرات ته‌نشست نیتروژن شبیه­سازی شده بر ویژگی ­های شیمیایی خاک در توده دست‌کاشت افراپلت واقع درجنگل آموزشی- پژوهشی دانشکده منابع طبیعی ساری بود.
مواد و روش­ ها:
در توده پژوهشی تعداد 12 پلات 20×10 متر پیاده شد. ته‌نشست نیتروژن در چهار سطح شامل، صفر (شاهد)، 50 (کم)، 100 (متوسط) و 150 (زیاد) کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار در سال در نظر گرفته شد. نیتروژن به صورت محلول آمونیم- نیترات در هر پلات به‌صورت دستی و ماهانه در طول یکسال اسپری شد. سه نمونه خاک از عمق 10-0 سانتی‌متر از هر پلات در هر فصل طی یکسال با روش استوانه فلزی تهیه و به آزمایشگاه منتقل شد. در آزمایشگاه ویژگی‌های فیزیکی درصد رطوبت به روش وزنی و بافت خاک به روش هیدرومتری اندازه‌گیری شد. ویژگی­های شیمیایی خاک شامل pH خاک به روش پتانسیومتری، EC به روش هدایت سنجی (نسبت خاک به آب برابر با 1 به 5/2 بود) اندازه­ گیری شدند. کربن آلی به روش والکی و بلاک، نیتروژن به روش کجلدال، فسفر قابل جذب با روش اولسن، پتاسیم با روش عصاره­گیری با استات آمونیم اندازه ­گیری شدند.
نتایج و بحث:
نتایج نشان داد که ته‌نشست نیتروژن باعث کاهش معنی‌دار مقدار pH و EC خاک شد. در انتهای دوره مورد بررسی، مقدار نیتروژن در تیمارهای متوسط (0/010±0/47 درصد) و زیاد (0/013±0/59 درصد) به­ طور معنی‌داری بیشتر از شاهد (0/006±0/36 درصد) بود. مقدار فسفر در تیمار متوسط (0/39±15/98) و زیاد (0/43±14/95) به ­طور معنی‌داری کمتر از شاهد (1/05±24/97) بود. همچنین افزایش ته‌نشست نیتروژن باعث کاهش معنی‌دار پتاسیم در خاک شد. در انتهای دوره مورد بررسی، مقدار آمونیم (کم: 6/04، متوسط: 7/23 و زیاد: 8/53) و نیترات (کم: 7/21، متوسط: 9/95 و زیاد: 20/51) به­ طور معنی‌داری بیشتر از شاهد (آمونیم: 4/93 و نیترات: 5/06) بود. دلیل کاهش pH و EC می­تواند ناشی از آب­شویی کاتیون­های قلیایی به دنبال بروز پدیده آب­شویی نیترات و افزایش غلظت آمونیم در خاک باشد. دلیل افزایش میزان نیترات را می­توان اضافه شدن آن و همچنین تولید نیترات در حضور آمونیم بیان کرد. به ­طور کلی نتایج نشان داد که ته‌نشست نیتروژن اثرات مخربی بر ویژگی­ های شیمیایی خاک داشت که باعث کاهش میزان  pHو EC، پتاسیم، فسفر و همچنین افزایش نیتروژن کل، کربن آلی، آمونیم و نیترات در خاک شد.
نتیجه ­گیری:
افزایش نیتروژن در مراحل اول می‌تواند تا حدی باعث افزایش رویش درختان شود ولی با گذشت زمان و اشباع نیتروژن در خاک و وقوع پدیده آب­شویی نیترات و کاهش حاصلخیزی خاک، شرایط برای رشد و رویش گیاهان نامناسب خواهد شد. با توجه به کمبود اطلاعات در زمینه اثرات ته‌نشست نیتروژن بر ویژگی­ های خاک، انجام مطالعات گسترده‌تر در ارتباط با اثرات آن روی ویژگی­ های زیستی خاک از جمله فعالیت­ های میکروبی و آنزیمی و  همچنین تنفس خاک پیشنهاد می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of simulated nitrogen deposition on soil chemical properties in maple plantation stand

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehrcedeh Tafazoli 1
  • Hamid Jalilvand 1
  • Seyyed Mohammad Hojjati 1
  • Norbert Lamersdorf 2

1 Department of forestry, Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Sari , Iran

2 Department of temperate Soil Science, University of Göttingen, Institute of Soil Science, Göttingen, Germany

چکیده [English]

Introduction:
The amount of nitrogen compounds released into the atmosphere has increased, and is higher in industrial areas due to the increasing usage of fossil fuels and chemical fertilizers (Gruber and Galloway, 2008). Nitrogen deposition is one the consequences of increasing atmospheric nitrogen compounds. Nitrogen deposition refers to a process that nitrogen compounds in the atmosphere deposit on a solid surface (Cornell et al., 2003). Due to the lack of information about the effects of nitrogen deposition on forest soil properties, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on soil chemical properties in a maple plantation located at the educational and research forest of Faculty of Natural Resources (Sari).
Material and methods:
Twelve plots of 20 m × 10 m were established in the study plantation stand. Four nitrogen treatments were considered including zero (control), 50 (low), 100 (medium) and 150 (high) kg N ha−1 year−1. Nitrogen in the form of NH4NO3 solution was manually sprayed onto the plots monthly during one year. Three soil samples were taken seasonally at a depth of 0-10 cm in each plot using a coring method and were transported to the laboratory (Xingren et al., 2017). In the laboratory, the physical properties including water content and soil texture were measured by a weighing and hydrometer method, respectively. Chemical properties of soil including pH and EC were measured by potentiometric and electrical conductivity methods, respectively (Soil to water ratio 1:2.5). Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were measured using the Walkley and Black method, Kjeltec System Instrument, Olsen P extracting solution and extracted using ammonium acetate, respectively.
Results and discussion:
The results showed that the nitrogen deposition had significantly decreased the pH and EC. At the end of the study period, the amount of nitrogen in medium (0.47%± 0.010) and high (0.59%± 0.013) treatments was significantly higher than the control (0.36%± 0.006). The amount of phosphorus in medium (15.95± 0.39 mg kg-1) and high (14.95± 0.43 mgkg-1) treatments was significantly lower than the control (24.97± 1.05 mgkg-1). In addition, nitrogen deposition had caused a significant reduction in soil potassium. The amounts of ammonium (low: 6.04, medium: 7.23 and high: 8.53) and nitrate (low: 7.21, medium: 9.95 and high: 20.51) were significantly higher than in the control treatment (ammonium: 4.93 nitrate: 5.06). The reason for reduced soil pH and EC can be the leaching of base cations followed by leaching of nitrate and an increased ammonium concentration in the soil. The reason for increased nitrate can be its addition as well as the production of nitrate in the presence of ammonium. In general, results showed that the nitrogen deposition treatments had destructive effects on soil chemical properties that decreased pH and EC, potassium and phosphorus and increased the total nitrogen, organic Carbon, ammonium and nitrate in the soil.
Conclusion:
Increased nitrogen at the early stages may be partly responsible for tree growth but, with the passage of time and the saturation of nitrogen in the soil and the occurrence of nitrate leaching as well as loss of soil fertility, conditions for the growth of plants would become unsuitable. Due to a lack of data on the effects of nitrogen deposition on soil properties, extensive studies about its effects on the soil chemical and biological properties, such as soil microbial and enzyme activities as well as soil respiration, is suggested.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Nitrogen deposition
  • Ammonium
  • Nitrate
  • Darabkola forest

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