نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف:
امروزه استفاده از کودهای شیمیایی حاوی آهن برای رفع علائم کمبود آهن در باغ‌های سیب به امری اجتناب‌ناپذیر تبدیل شده است، در حالیکه این امر جایگاهی در کشاورزی ارگانیک ندارد. اکثر باغ‌های میوه سردسیری ایران در مناطق آهکی استقرار یافته و علائم کمبود آهن در این اراضی به‌وفور قابل مشاهده است و مصرف مقادیر قابل‌توجهی کود شیمیایی حاوی آهن علاوه بر هزینه‌بر بودن، می‌تواند تعادل سایر عناصر غذایی خاک را نیز بر هم ‌زند.
مواد و روش‌ها:
به ‌منظور شناسایی پایه‌های مقاوم به کمبود آهن از دو روش گرسنگی آهن و تنش بی‌کربنات برای بررسی تحمل به کلروز ناشی از کمبود آهن در 9 پایه‌ سیب هیبرید گمی آلماسی و مالینگ مرتون 106 و والدین آنها در شرایط آبکشت استفاده شد. مقایسه میانگین‌ها با استفاده از آزمون دانکن در سطح احتمال پنج درصد با استفاده از نرم‌افزار آماری SPSS انجام شد.
نتایج و بحث:
به طور کلی نتایج نشان داد که پایه گمی آلماسی در مقایسه با پایه‌های مالینگ مرتون 106 و کلون‌های حاصل از هیبرید آنها نسبت به کمبود آهن ناشی از بی‌کربنات و گرسنگی آهن محتمل‌تر بود. از نظر آماری شاخص کلروفیل، غلظت کلروفیل، آهن کل و  آهن فعال برگ‌های ششم از انتهای جوانه در پایه گمی الماسی اختلاف معناداری با پایه مالینگ مرتون و گاه با نتاج هیبرید این دو پایه داشت. pH و Ec آبشویه گلدان‌ها تحت‌تاثیر نوع پایه قرار گرفته بود.
نتیجه‌گیری:
در هر دو روش بررسی پایه والد گمی آلماسی در مقایسه با سایر پایه‌ها از نظر شاخص کلروفیل، درجه‌بندی ظاهری ناشی از کمبود آهن، غلظت کلروفیل برگ ششم از انتهای جوانه، غلظت آهن کل و فعال برگ‌ها عملکرد بهتری را نشان داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Endurance evaluation of apple rootstocks for fe deficiencyinduced chlorosis through iron hunger and bicarbonate stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shahnam Ashtari
  • Mohammadreza Dadpour
  • Shahin Oustan
  • Fariborz Zaree Nahandi

Department of Horticulture, Agriculture College, Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction:
Nowadays, the use of chemical fertilizers containing iron (Fe) in order to compensate for iron deficiency symptoms in apple orchards may be inevitable, but is not compatible with organic farming. Most of Iran’s temperate zone fruit orchards are located in limestone areas and iron deficiency symptoms are observed in these areas. As a result, growers use significant quantities of fertilizer containing iron that, in addition to the cost, disrupt the balance of nutritional elements in the soil.
Material and methods:
The study was carried out in order to find rootstock resistant to iron deficiency through the two methods of iron hunger and bicarbonate stress and to evaluate the endurance of iron deficiency-induced chlorosis in nine hybrid apples, Gami Almasi hybrid apple trees and Malling Merton 106 and their progeny were used in terms of aquiculture. Mean comparison was performed using the Duncan test at a 5% probability level using SPSS software.
Results and discussion:
In general, the results showed that Gami Almasi root stock was more tolerant to Fe deficiency-induced chlorosis compared to Malling Merton 106 and their progeny. Chlorophyll index, chlorophyll fluorescence, total chlorophyll content, total iron and active iron of sixth leaves from the final bud were found to have a significant difference with the Maling Merton 106 and, at times, with their progeny. The pH and Ec of the pots' drainage were influenced by the type of root stocks.
Conclusion:
In both methods investigated in the study of Gami Almasi, in comparison with other bases of the chlorophyll index, the visual rating of iron-deficiency, the concentration of chlorophyll in leaf from the sixth the end of the bud and the concentration of total and active iron in leaves showed better performance.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Apples
  • Bicarbonate
  • Hybrid rootstocks
  • Iron chlorosis

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