نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه کشاورزی اکولوژیک، پژوهشکده علوم محیطی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

2 موسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رشت، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف:
یکی از مشکلات زراعت برنج کمبود منابع آب است به‌ویژه در دوره‌هایی که کاهش ریزش باران بر رشد رویشی و عملکرد آن تأثیر می‌گذارد. تنش خشکی به‌عنوان عامل موثری بر کاهش تولید در گیاهان شناخته شده است که در این باره شناسایی و گسترش ژنوتیپ‌های سازگار به تنش یکی از راهکارهای غلبه بر شرایط نامساعد محیطی است. بنابراین شناخت کافی از تنوع ژنتیکی و طبقه‌بندی ژرم‌پلاسم‌ها در انتخاب والدین مناسب برای اهداف به‌نژادی لازم و ضروری است.
مواد و روش‌ها:
این تحقیق برای شناسایی ژنوتیپ‌های متحمل و حساس برنج به تنش خشکی با 20 ژنوتیپ بومی و اصلاح‌‌شده برنج به‌صورت فاکتوریل با طرح کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در موسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور (رشت)، اجراء شد. طی مراحل رشد صفات ارتفاع بوته، تعداد پنجه کل، تعداد پنجه بارور، مساحت برگ پرچم، طول خوشه، تعداد دانه پر و پوک، وزن صد دانه، تعداد روز تا رسیدگی و عملکرد اندازه‌گیری شدند.
نتایج و بحث:
نتایج مقایسه میانگین نشان داد که کمترین درصد تغییرات اکثر صفات در ارقام محلی مربوط به هاشمی، علی‌کاظمی و سنگ‌جو و در ارقام اصلاح‌شده به درفک، سپیدرود و شیرودی تعلق داشت. تجزیه کلاستر به روش واریانس مینیمم وارد و معیار فاصله‌ای اقلیدسی برای صفات زراعی ژنوتیپ‌های مورد بررسی را در دو گروه قرار داد. تفکیک گروه‌ها عمدتاً بر اساس ارقام اصلاح‌شده و ارقام بومی و خوش‌کیفیت بود. در این تحقیق مشخص شد که بین گروه‌های مختلف ایجاد‌شده در ژنوتیپ‌های برنج بر مبنای صفات مورفولوژیک تنوع ژنتیکی وجود دارد و می‌توان از متفاوت‌ترین و پر‌محصول‌ترین ژنوتیپ‌های برنج در برنامه‌های دو‌رگ‌گیری به‌ویژه برای تلاقی با ژنوتیپ‌های موجود برای ایجاد ارقام جدید مقاوم به تنش استفاده کرد. نتایج حاصل از تجزیه به عامل‌ها نشان داد که 3 و 4 عامل اصلی و مستقل طی دو سال، تحت شرایط نرمال و تنش 73 الی 85 درصد از تغییرات کل داده‌ها را توجیه می‌کنند.
نتیجه‌گیری:
برای گزینش ژنوتیپ‌های با عملکرد دانه بالا و متحمل به تنش رطوبتی در برنج، می‌توان به صفات تعداد پنجه کل و بارور، تعداد روز تا رسیدگی، مساحت برگ پرچم، طول خوشه و وزن صد دانه توجه کرد و از طریق برآورد شاخص‌های گزینشی مناسب، گزینش‌های هم‌زمانی برای صفات مذکور انجام داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Identification of effective morphological traits on rice cultivars yield under moisture stress condition using multivariate statistical methods

نویسندگان [English]

  • Saeid Bakhshipour 1
  • Jafar Kambouzia 1
  • Korous Khoshbakht 1
  • Abdol Majid Mahdavi Damghani 1
  • Maryam Hosseini Chaleshtori 2

1 Department of Agroecology, Environmental Sciences Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

2 Rice Research Institute of Iran (RRII), Agricultural Research Education and ExtensionOrganization (AREEO), Rasht

چکیده [English]

Introduction: One of the main problems in rice cultivation and production is the lack of water resources, especially during periods of low rainfall which affect vegetative growth rate and the level of yield. Drought stress has been well documented as an effective parameter in decreasing crop production, and developing and releasing new varieties which are adapted to water deficit conditions can be a constructive approach to overcoming unsuitable environmental conditions. Hence, the characterization of genetic diversity and germplasm classification for parental selection in breeding purposes is of great importance.Materials and methods: In order to evaluate the adaptation of rice genotypes to drought stress and to identify tolerant and sensitive genotypes, 20 genotypes were studied using a factorial randomized complete block design with three replications at the Rice Research Institute (Rasht). During growth stages, some traits were recorded such as plant height, total and fertile tiller number, flag leaf area, panicle length, filled and empty grain number, 100-grain weight, number of days to maturity and yield.Results and discussion: Mean comparison showed that the lowest percentage changes in traits among local varieties (Hashemi, Alikazemi and Sangjo) and improved cultivars (Dorfak, Sepidrood and Shiroodi) respectively. Cluster analysis using Ward’s minimum variance and squared Euclidean distance for agronomic traits divided the genotypes into two groups. The separated varieties were grouped in clusters with high quality on the basis of morphological traits and this guides us to select the most different and the best for hybridization programmes, especially to hybridize with local varieties in order to create new varieties resistant to stress. The result of factor analysis based on the principal component showed that factors three and four accounted for 73- 85 of total variance. Conclusion: For the selection of genotypes with high yield and stress tolerance in rice, total and fertile tillers, days to maturity, flag leaf area, panicle length and 100-grain weight could be considered through estimating suitable selection indices for these traits. local and improved cultivars. The study found that the different groups show genetic variation in rice genotypes

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Genetic diversity
  • Cluster Analysis
  • Factor analysis
  • Morphological characteristics

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