نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه خاک شناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

2 گروه آبیاری و زهکشی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

3 گروه آب، دانشکده مهندسی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف:
آلودگی ناشی از کاربرد نهاده‌های کشاورزی به‌ویژه علف‌کش‌ها یکی از چالش‌های زیست‌محیطی عصر حاضر است و به‌کارگیری فناوری‌های نوین همچون سم-آبیاری این مشکل را دوچندان کرده است. بنابراین، گزینش راهبردهای بهینه مدیریتی با تکیه بر شناخت سرنوشت سموم در خاک بسیار ضروری است. هدف از این پژوهش، بررسی کمّی رفتار جذب سطحی و رهاسازی علف‌کش‌ها در خاک در شرایط واقعی مزرعه و در آزمایشگاه است.
مواد و روش‌ها:
بدین منظور، علف‌کش متری‌بیوزین به خاک کرت‌های آزمایشی در مزرعه به دو روش سم‌پاشی معمولی (Conventional Spraying: CS) و سم-آبیاری (Herbigation: HRB) و در محیط آزمایشگاه افزوده شد. پس از بررسی رفتار جذب و واجذب علف‌کش به روش‌های پیمانه‌ای و سانتریفیوژ، مدل‌های مختلف جذب تعادلی به داده‌های به دست آمده برازش داده شدند.
نتایج و بحث:
نتایج نشان داد که به دلیل مقدار کم ماده آلی و رس در خاک، به‌طور کلی جذب سطحی علف‌کش در هر سه نوع تیمار ضعیف است و روند کلی آن از مدل فروندلیچ پیروی می‌کند. نتایج نشان داد از آنجایی‌که در هر سه تیمار مکانیسم جذب سطحی علف‌کش از نوع پیوند هیدروژنی ضعیف است، بخش عمده علف‌کش جذب شده پس از چهار مرحله شست‌وشو رهاسازی می‌شود. اما در تیمارهای آزمایشگاهی و سم-آبیاری، مقدار رهاسازی نسبتاً کمتر بوده و پسماند کمی به دلیل پخشیدگی مولکول‌های علف‌کش به درون منافذ بین خاک‌دانه‌ای و به دام افتادن در این منافذ مشاهده می‌شود.
نتیجه‌گیری:
به‌طور کلی نتایج این بررسی نشان داد که مقدار جذب سطحی علف‌کش در تیمارهای آزمایشگاهی و سم-آبیاری به دلیل وجود رطوبت بیشتر در خاک و در نتیجه افزایش مکان‌های آب‌دوست ماده آلی و نیز پخشیدگی مولکول‌های سم به درون منافذ بین خاک‌دانه‌ای، بیشتر از تیمار سم‌پاشی معمولی است، و بنابراین روش کاربرد سم بر رفتار جذب سطحی و رهاسازی آن تاثیرگذار است. بنابراین کاربرد سم به‌صورت سم-آبیاری به منظور کاهش هدررفت و افزایش کارایی آن در مزرعه پیشنهاد می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Adsorption and desorption of herbicides in soil under field and laborat conventional spraying (CS) methods, and to laboratory samples. After inspecting the adsorption and desorption behaviour of herbicide by batch and centrifugal methods, diory conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Elham Noshadi 1
  • Mehdi Homaee 2
  • Mohammad Mahmoudian Shoushtari 3

1 Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Water Department, Faculty of Engeenering, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction:
Contamination from agricultural inputs, particularly herbicides, is one of the most important environmental challenges and the use of modern technologies such as herbigation has intensified this problem. Thus, employing optimal management strategies based on knowledge of herbicide behaviour and processes in soil is necessary. The objective of this study was to assess quantitatively the herbicide adsorption-desorption behaviour in soil in the laboratory and under real field conditions.
Materials and methods:
Consequently, metribuzin was applied to the experimental plots using the herbigation (HRB) and conventional spraying (CS) methods, and to laboratory samples. After inspecting the adsorption and desorption behaviour of herbicide by batch and centrifugal methods, different models of equilibrium adsorption were fitted to the data.
Results and discussion:
Results indicated that, due to the low amount of organic matter and clay in the soil, herbicide adsorption was generally weak in all three types of treatment and that the overall process followed the Freundlich model. The results further showed that in all three treatments because of the adsorption mechanism’s weak hydrogen bond, a large portion of the adsorbed molecules desorbed after four washing cycles. However, in the laboratory and herbigation treatments, the amount desorbed was relatively less and, due to the diffusion of molecules into inter-aggregate pores, a small hysteresis can be seen.
Conclusion:
In conclusion the results show, the adsorption amount in laboratory and herbigation treatments is greater than conventional spraying treatments due to a higher moisture level in the soil and increased hydrophilic sites on organic matters and diffusion within the inter-aggregate pores. Therefore, the methods of pesticide application affect the adsorption and desorption behaviour of it. So pesticide application by herbigation is suggested in order to reduce losses and increase efficiency in the field.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Adsorption
  • Conventional spraying
  • Desorption
  • Herbigation

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