نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی، دانشگاه کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی رامین خوزستان، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف:
بزرگ‌ترین تالاب بین‌المللی ایران یعنی تالاب شادگان یکی از مهم‌ترین و ارزشمندترین تالاب‌های کشور و حتی جهان است. وسعت تالاب، طبیعی بودن آن، غنای بالای گونه‌های گیاهی، جانوری و زیستگاه‌های آن، ارزش فوق‌العاده‌ای را برای این تالاب به ارمغان آورده است. در سال‌های اخیر این تالاب ارزشمند تحت‌ تأثیر عوامل طبیعی و عوامل غیرطبیعی و انسانی در معرض خشک شدن و نابودی قرار گرفته است. معیشت خانوارهای بهره‌بردار روستایی حاشیه‌نشین تالاب شادگان از تمامی جنبه‌ها به این تالاب وابستگی انکارناپذیری دارد، به‌طوری‌که مرگ تالاب، مرگ معیشت آن‌ها را به‌همراه خواهد داشت. یکی از راه‌های کاهش آسیب‌پذیری حاشیه‌نشینان تالاب شادگان، تأکید و توجه بر رفتار سازشی بهره‌برداران آن است. در این راستا تحقیق حاضر با هدف تحلیل عوامل موثر بر رفتار سازشی بهره‌برداران حوضه‌ی تالاب شادگان در برابر اثرات خشک‌سالی بر اساس تئوری آسیب‌پذیری انجام شده است.
مواد و روش ‏ها:
این تحقیق به لحاظ ماهیت و اهداف، از نوع پژوهشی کاربردی و از منظر جمع‌آوری داده‌ها، توصیفی پیمایشی و از نظر تحلیل روابط بین متغیرها از نوع مطالعات همبستگی است. جامعه‌ی آماری تحقیق شامل کلیه‌ی خانوارهای بهره‌بردار روستایی ساکن در بخش مرکزی و دهستان خنافره از شهر شادگان در استان خوزستان  شامل 2319 بود که در نهایت نظرات 124 بهره‌ بردار بر اساس روش نمونه‌گیری سهمیه ‏ای تصادفی از طریق پرسش‌نامه گردآوری شد. به‌منظور تعیین پایایی آن از ضریب آلفای کرونباخ استفاده شد که با میزان بالای 0/76 برای تمامی متغیر‏ها نشان از پایایی مطلوب پرسش‌نامه‏ داشت. روایی پرسش‌نامه نیز به وسیله‏ تیمی از متخصصان موضوعی تایید شد. داده‏های حاصل از پرسش نامه‏ های گردآوری شده به وسیله‏ دو نرم‏افزار SPSSv20 و AMOSv20 توصیف و تجزیه‌و‌تحلیل شدند.
نتایج و بحث:
طبق نتایج به‌دست‌آمده 47/6 درصد بهره‌برداران روستایی حوضه مورد بررسی از نظر نوع رفتار سازشی در برابر آسیب‌پذیری ناشی از مخاطرات طبیعی و انسانی، دارای رفتار غیرمسئولانه و 52/4 درصد دیگر نیز دارای رفتار مسئولانه در این‌باره بوده‌اند. نتایج به‌دست‌آمده از تحلیل مسیر نشان داد که متغیر حساسیت، اثری مستقیم و معنی‌دار بر آسیب‌پذیری و رفتار سازشی بهره‏برداران به ترتیب با مقدار بتای (0/377β=) و (0/208β=) دارد. متغیر در معرض قرار گرفتن اثری مستقیم و معنی‏ داری بر آسیب‏پذیری و رفتار سازشی بهره‏برداران با مقدار بتای به ترتیب (0/492β=) و (0/323β=) دارد. سه متغیر در معرض قرار گرفتن، حساسیت و ظرفیت انطباقی در مجموع 41 درصد از تغییرات واریانس آسیب ‏پذیری را تبیین می‏ کنند. سه متغیر در معرض قرار گرفتن، حساسیت و آسیب ‏پذیری در مجموع 20 درصد از تغییرات واریانس رفتار سازشی را تبیین می‏ کند.
نتیجه ‏گیری:
بدین ترتیب می ‏توان نتیجه گرفت که در معرض قرار گرفتن بهره‌برداران در مواجهه با خشک‌سالی تالاب شادگان و حساسیت آنها به خشک‌سالی منجر به بروز آسیب‌پذیری و رفتار سازشی بهره‌برداران شده است. بنابراین  خطر خشک‌سالی تالاب میتواند اثرات مستقیم و غیرمستقیم بر زندگی بهره‏برداران داشته باشد. به عنوان مثال، تغییر در عملکرد محصول در پاسخ به بروز خشک‌سالی می‌تواند یکی از تأثیرات مستقیم این پدیده باشد. همچنین افزایش بیکاری ناشی از خشک شدن تالاب به دلیل کاهش آب رودخانه‌ی کارون و جراحی، یکی از تأثیرات غیرمستقیم آن است. بنابراین ساکنان منطقه درصدد برمی‌آیند که به آن پاسخ بدهند و این منجر به رفتار سازشی بهره‌برداران می‏ شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Exploring beneficiary adaptation behaviour to drought effects in Shadegan wetlands: application of the vulnerability theory

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mansour Ghanian
  • Azar Hasheminejad
  • Omid M. Ghoochani
  • Azade Bakhshi
  • Roghaye Yusefi Hajivand

Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Ramin Agricultural and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Ahvaz, Iran.

چکیده [English]

Introduction:
As the largest international wetland in Iran, Shadegan Wetland is one of the most important and valuable wetlands in the country and, even, the world. The widespread nature of the wetland, its natural character, high abundance of plant species, animals and its habitats has brought tremendous value to the wetland. In recent years, this valuable wetland has been exposed to drying up and destruction due to natural and human factors. The livelihood of rural households in the area is in all respects indebted to Shadegan Wetland: The death of the wetland will be accompanied by the death of their livelihood. One of the ways to reduce the vulnerability of marginalized people in Shadegan Wetland is to emphasize on their adaptation behaviors. In this regards, the present study aimed to explore beneficiaries Conservation Behavior against drought effects in Shadegan Wetlands based on vulnerability theory.
Material and methods:
The present study in terms of its nature and objectives is practical, in terms of data collection, is a descriptive survey and, in terms of analyzing the data, is a correlation study. The total population were the rural operators living in the central part of the town and Khnafereh village in Shadegan City, Khuzestan Province (Iran). They consisted of eight villages with 2319 household operators (N=2319). A random-quota method was used as sampling (n=124) and data were gathered via the use of a research-based questionnaire. The reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed by calculating Cronbach’s alpha coefficient as greater than 0.76. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by a panel of experts, and the data were analyzed using SPSSv20 and AMOSv20.
Results and discussion:
According to the results, 47.6 percent of the beneficiaries of the wetland show an irresponsible behaviour towards the vulnerability of natural and human hazard and 52.4 percent of them have responsible behaviour. Results of the study showed that sensitivity has a significantly positive effect on vulnerability (β=0.377) and conservation behaviour (β=0.208). Exposure has a significantly positive effect on vulnerability (β=0.492) and conservation behaviour (β=0.3). Also, the results revealed that exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity predict a 41% variation in vulnerability. Exposure, sensitivity and vulnerability predict a 20 % variation in conservation behaviour.
Conclusion:
Thus, it can be concluded that exposure of the beneficiaries to the drought conditions of Shadegan Wetland and their sensitivity to drought have resulted in vulnerability and adaptation behaviour among them. Hence, exposure to wetland droughts can have both direct and indirect effects on their lives. For example, changing product performance in response to drought can be one of the direct effects of this phenomenon. Also, an increase in unemployment resulting from the drying of the wetland due to the reduction of Karun and Jarahi rivers is one of its indirect effects. Therefore, the residents of the area are going to respond to these and this will lead to the adaptation behaviour of the beneficiaries.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Conservation behaviour
  • Shadegan Wetland
  • Drought
  • Vulnerability theory

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