نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت

2 گروه آبیاری و زهکشی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: تجمع عناصر سنگین در خاک در بسیاری از نقاط دنیا مشکلات زیست‌محیطی فراوانی را به‌وجود آورده‌اند. غلظت زیاد این عناصر در خاک ممکن است به مقداری زیاد به‌وسیله گیاه جذب شود و این مهم‌ترین راه ورود عناصر سنگین به زنجیره غذایی انسان و دام و چرخه‌های بیولوژیک است. بنابراین بررسی چگونگی انباشت این عناصر به منظور جلوگیری از آلودگی خاک و زیست‌بوم ضروری است. در میان عناصر سنگین، کادمیم به دلیل تحرک بالا در سیستم‌های بیولوژیک و توانایی تجمع درگیاهان بدون ایجاد هر گونه نشانه‌های قابل‌رؤیت به‌عنوان یکی از خطرناک‌ترین عناصر سنگین در نظر گرفته شده است. با توجه به اینکه کادمیم در خاک‌های اسیدی در محدوده pH 5/4 تا 5/5 متحرک بوده و برنج نیز در خاک‌های اسیدی بهترین رشد را دارد و نیز با توجه به نقش برنج در سلامت جامعه، این تحقیق با هدف بررسی آلودگی خاک شالیزارهای استان گیلان به کادمیم انجام شد.مواد و روش‌ها: بدین منظور تعداد ١٠٠ نمونه خاک از عمق ٠-٢٠ سانتی‌متری به طور تصادفی و با استفاده از دستگاه GPS  پیش از کوددهی و کشت و پس از برداشت محصول از شالیزارهای مختلف استان تهیه شد. برای تجزیه خاک، نمونه‌های خاک برداشت‌شده پس از خشک شدن، از الک 2 میلی‌متری عبور داده شد. غلظت کادمیم کل و نیز برخی ویژگی‌های خاک شامل بافت خاک، هدایت الکتریکی، واکنش خاک، جرم ویژه ظاهری و حقیقی و ماده آلی خاک اندازه‌گیری شد. توزیع مکانی و پراکنش فلز سنگین کادمیم با استفاده از روش‌های مختلف زمین آماری شامل IDW، Spline و Kriging در محیط GIS بررسی شد.نتایج و بحث: نتایج حاصل از تجزیه‌های فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک نشان داد که متوسط pH خاک‌های مورد آزمایش ٤٨/٦ و شوری عصاره اشباع ٥٩/١ دسی‌زیمنس بر متر بوده که این مقدار شوری برای کشت گیاه برنج مشکلی ایجاد نمی‌کند. درصد شن نمونه‌های خاک بین ٤ الی ٣٥، سیلت بین ٢٨ الی ٤٩ و رس بین ٣٩ الی ٦٥ درصد بوده که بدین ترتیب بافت خاک‌ها در محدوده Clay Loam، Silty Clay و Clay بوده که خاکی نسبتاً سنگین تا سنگین و برای کشت گیاه برنج مناسب است. مقدار ماده آلی به‌طور متوسط ٧٨/١ و دامنه تغییرات کادمیم کل خاک نیز پیش از کشت و پس از برداشت محصول به ترتیب با کمینه 65/0 و 97/1 و بیشینه 40/1 و 05/11 بود. از میان روش‌های زمین‌آماری بررسی‌شده برای توزیع مکانی و پراکنش کادمیم روش کریجینگ معمولی با مدل کروی به‌عنوان بهترین روش انتخاب شد.نتیجه‌گیری: بر اساس نتایج به‌دست‌آمده بخشی از منطقه مورد بررسی پس از برداشت محصول طبق شاخص Kelly آلوده بوده که می‌تواند بیانگر تأثیر استفاده از کودهای شیمیایی و مدیریت غیراصولی اراضی باشد و باید استفاده از این کودها با احتیاط بیشتری انجام شود. نقشه حاصل می‌تواند برای بررسی و مدیریت استفاده صحیح کودهای شیمیایی برای حاصلخیزی زمین‌های شالیزاری استفاده شود.

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