نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری مهندسی آب، دانشکده مهندسی عمران، آب و محیط زیست، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران

2 استادیار گروه منابع آب، دانشکده مهندسی عمران، آب و محیط زیست، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران

3 دانشیار گروه حقوق محیط زیست، دانشکده حقوق، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران

چکیده

با کاهش روز‌افزون منابع آب  در ‌دسترس، تعداد و شدت مناقشات آبی بین کشورهای واقع در حوضه‌های آبریز مشترک بیشتر شده است. اصلی‌ترین چالش این مناقشات به‌ویژه در مناطق خشک و نیمه‌خشک، نحوه تقسیم آب است. قواعد و مقررات بین‌المللی درباره آب‌های فرامرزی عبارتند از 1) قواعد هلسینکی، 2) کنوانسیون آب اروپا، 3) کنوانسیون آبراهه سازمان ملل متحد و 4) قواعد منابع آب برلین. مرور اجمالی تحقیقات پیشین نشان می‌دهد که مجموعه این اسناد از نظر مفاد مربوط به استفاده از آب به‌صورت جامع تحلیل و مقایسه نشده‌اند. در این مقاله ضمن ارائه تاریخچه، مفاد و تفسیرهای موجود، به بررسی تحلیلی و بیان نقاط قوت و ضعف اسناد مذکور پرداخته شده است بررسی تطبیقی این اسناد حاکی از آن است که در تمامی آنها دو اصل مهم "مشارکت منصفانه و معقول" و "التزام به عدم ایراد آسیب قابل‌توجه" لحاظ شده است. نتایج نشان داد که کنوانسیون 1997سازمان ملل متحد نسبت به سایر اسناد مذکور، گزینه مناسب‌تر و منصفانه‌تری برای اجرا در مناطق خشک و نیمه‌خشک از جمله ایران است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparative Study of the International Law related to Water Sharing in Trans-boundary Rivers

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fariba Avarideh 1
  • Jalal Attari 2
  • Mohsen Abdollahi 3

1 Ph.D. Student of Water Engineering, Faculty of Civil, Water and Environment Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant professor, Department of Water Resources, Faculty of Civil, Water and Environment Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

3 Associate professor, Department of Environmental Law, Faculty of Law, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

As water resources become scarcer, trans-boundary water conflicts between countries located in the shared basins are increasing in frequency and intensity. The main challenge in these conflicts, especially in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world, is water sharing. The relevant international law and rules for trans-boundary waters include the Helsinki Rules, the UNECE Water Convention, the UN Watercourse Convention and the Berlin Rules. A brief review of research studies indicates that this set of documents has not been compared comprehensively taking into consideration water use provisions for implementation in the region. In this paper, the historical background, provisions and commentaries of the aforementioned documents as well as their strengths and weakness have been analytically discussed. The comparative study confirms that both important principles of “equitable and reasonable participation” and “obligation not to cause significant harm” have been considered in all of the relevant instruments and the results show that the 1997 UN Watercourse Convention is the most appropriate and equitable alternative for implementation in the region, including in Iran.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Trans-boundary rivers
  • International water law
  • Water sharing
  • Equitable use

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