نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه لرستان، خرم آباد، ایران

2 گروه علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه فنی و حرفه ای، تهران، ایران

3 بخش زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی صفیآباد، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، دزفول، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: کلزا یکی از مهم ­ترین گیاهان روغنی در سراسر دنیا می­ باشد. کشت این گیاه به علت درصد روغن بالای آن (حدود 40 تا 45 درصد روغن) می­ باشد. با این حال، در سال­ های اخیر سطح زیر کشت گیاه کلزا به علت کمبود آب کاهش پیدا کرده است. کاربرد ارقام مقاوم به خشکی و دارای کارایی مصرف آب بالا می ­تواند به توسعه سطح زیرکشت و افزایش تولید این گیاه کمک کند. بنابراین این مطالعه به منظور ارزیابی کارایی مصرف آب ارقام بهاره کلزا در اقلیم ­های گرم و معتدل انجام شد.
مواد و روش­ ها: هدف از این پژوهش بررسی ارقام مختلف به عنوان راهکاری برای افزایش تولید کلزا و بهبود کارایی مصرف آب این گیاه در اقلیم­ های مختلف در استان­ های خوزستان و لرستان بود. برای این هدف چهار شهرستان شامل دو شهرستان خرم ­آباد و کوهدشت در استان لرستان به عنوان اقلیم­ های معتدل و نیمه خشک و دو شهرستان دزفول و شوشتر در استان خوزستان به عنوان اقلیم ­های گرم و خشک انتخاب شدند. ابتدا داده ­های اقلیمی بلند مدت روزانه (شامل دمای کمینه و بیشینه، بارندگی و تابش روزانه) این شهرستان­ ها جمع ­آوری شد. ارقامی که در این تحقیق مورد استفاده قرار گرفتند شامل Hyola308 (زودرس)، Hyola401 (متوسط­رس) و RGS003 (دیررس) بودند. همچنین به منظور شبیه ­سازی رشد و عملکرد کلزا تحت مناطق مختلف از مدل APSIM-Canola استفاده گردید. در این مطالعه برای تمامی تجزیه ­های آماری و رسم شکل ­ها از نرم­ افزار OriginPro 9.1 استفاده شد.
نتایج و بحث: نتایج این مطالعه نشان داد که صفات مورد بررسی (شامل عملکرد دانه، زیست توده، کارایی مصرف آب، وزن دانه، تبخیر و تعرق واقعی، میانگین دما در طول دوره رشد و طول دوره رشد کلزا) تحت تاثیر رقم و منطقه (نوع اقلیم) قرار داشتند. بر اساس نتایج به دست آمده در مجموع آزمایش ­های بلند مدت شبیه­ سازی بالاترین مقدار عملکرد دانه و کارایی مصرف آب (به ترتیب 3037 کیلوگرم در هکتار و 9/6 کیلوگرم در هکتار بر میلی‎متر) در سطح رقم متوسط رس Hyola401 به دست آمد. همچنین نتایج مشخص نمود که مناطق معتدل و نیمه خشک نسبت به مناطق گرم و خشک مقدار عملکرد دانه، زیست توده و کارایی مصرف آب را به ترتیب 2507 کیلوگرم در هکتار، 10100 کیلوگرم در هکتار و 7/2 کیلوگرم در هکتار بر میلی‎متر افزایش می ­دهد. تیمار خرم ­آباد × Hyola401 به علت میانگین کمتر دما در طول دوره رشد (9/10 درجه سانتی­گراد) و طول دوره رشد (9/224 روز) بیشتر، بالاترین مقدار کارایی مصرف آب، عملکرد دانه و زیست توده (به ترتیب 9 کیلوگرم در هکتار بر میلی‎متر، 4954 و 17943 کیلوگرم در هکتار) را به خود اختصاص داد در حالی که کمترین مقدار صفات مذکور در تیمار دزفول × Hyola308 (به ترتیب 5 کیلوگرم در هکتار بر میلی‎متر، 1369 و 5514 کیلوگرم در هکتار) ثبت گردید.
نتیجه ­گیری: به طور کلی نتایج نشان داد که توسعه کشت کلزا در مناطق معتدل می ­تواند در جهت افزایش تولید این گیاه در کشور و در راستای پایداری سیستم­ های کشت کلزا قرار گیرد. همچنین استفاده از یک رقم متوسط­ رس مانند Hyola401 در هر دوی اقلیم­ های معتدل و گرم می­ تواند از طریق تولید بیشتر به ازای آب مصرفی باعث افزایش کارایی مصرف آب و پایداری سیستم ­های تولید کلزا مورد توجه قرار بگیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Simulation of production and water use efficiency of spring canola cultivars in warm and temperate climates

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sajjad Rahimi-Moghaddam 1
  • Khosro Azizi 1
  • Hamed Eyni-Nargeseh 2
  • Seyed Ahmad Kalantar Ahmadi 3

1 Department of Production Engineering and Plant Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran

2 Department of Agricultural Science, Technical and Vocational University (TVU), Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Agronomy and Horticultural Scinece, Safiabad Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Dezful, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction: Canola is one of the most important oilseed crops all over the world. This oilseed crop is mainly utilized for its high oil content (with about 40–45% oil). However, in recent years, the area under cultivation of canola has decreased due to water scarcity. Applying drought-tolerant cultivars with high water use efficiency can help to develop the area under cultivation of canola and increase canola production. Therefore, the current study was conducted to assess the water use efficiency of spring canola cultivars in warm and temperate climates.
Material and methods: This study investigated different cultivars as a strategy for increasing canola production and improving its water use efficiency under different climate types in Khuzestan and Lorestan provinces. For this purpose, four locations including Khoramabad and Kuhdasht in Lorestan Province as semi-arid climate regions and Dezful, and Shushtar in Khuzestan Province as hot and arid climate regions were selected. Daily long-term climatic data (including minimum and maximum temperatures, rainfall, and global radiation) were collected for these locations from Iran Meteorological Organization. In this study, Hyola308 (early-maturity), Hyola401 (mid-maturity), and RGS003 (late-maturity) cultivars were used. In order to simulate the growth and yield of canola in different locations, the APSIM-Canola model was employed. OriginPro 9.1 software was used for all statistical analyses and the generation of figures.
Results and discussion: The results showed that grain yield, biomass, water use efficiency, grain weight, actual evapotranspiration, the average temperature during the canola growth period, and the length of the canola growth period were substantially affected by cultivar and region (climate type). According to the results, the highest grain yield and water use efficiency (3037 kg ha-1 and 6.9 kg mm-1 ha-1, respectively) were achieved for the mid-maturity cultivar (Hyola401). Furthermore, simulation results revealed that temperate and semi-arid regions compared to hot and arid regions increased grain yield, biomass and water use efficiency by 2507 kg ha-1, 10100 kg ha-1, and 2.7 kg mm-1 ha-1, respectively. Khorramabad × Hyola401 treatment had the highest water use efficiency, grain yield, and biomass (9 kg mm-1 ha-1, 4954, and 17943 kg ha-1, respectively) due to lower the average temperature during the canola growth period (10.9 ° C) and higher the length of the canola growth period (2424.9 day), while the lowest amount of these traits was recorded in Dezful × Hyola308 treatment (5 kg mm-1 ha-1, 1369, and 5514 kg ha-1, respectively).
Conclusion: The results indicated that expanding canola cultivation in temperate regions can be used to boost canola production in Iran and to improve the sustainability of canola cultivation agroecosystems. Also, using a mid-maturity cultivar such as Hyola401 in both temperate and hot climate conditions can increase water use efficiency and sustainability of canola production agroecosystems through higher production per water consumption.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • APSIM-Canola
  • Biomass
  • Grain yield
  • Semi-arid regions
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