نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه مهندسی معدن، دانشکده مهندسی، دانشگاه کاشان، کاشان، ایران

2 گروه مهندسی معدن، دانشکده مهندسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد تهران جنوب، تهران، ایران

3 گروه منابع طبیعی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد سوادکوه، سوادکوه، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: وسعت زمین­ های تحت تأثیر فعالیت­ های معدن­ کاری بویژه محل­ های انباشت باطله، روز به روز افزایش می­ یابد. در نتیجه هر روز ضرورت اجرای احیای معادن نیز بیشتر احساس می­ شود. جهت بازسازی معدن، به ­منظور هر نوع استفاده بعدی از زمین­ های تحت تأثیر و حفاظت از محیط‌زیست منطقه، انتخاب و کاشت گونه ­های گیاهی یکی از مرحله­ های مهم بازسازی است.
مواد و روش­ ها: در این تحقیق، انتخاب گونه گیاهی مناسب برای بازسازی معدن مس سونگون با هدف حفظ محیط ­زیست انجام شده است. برای این کار ابتدا گونه­ های مناسب براساس عامل­ های اصلی، شامل نوع استفاده دوباره از زمین­ های استخراج شده، شرایط اقلیمی منطقه و ویژگی­ های خاک منطقه انتخاب شدند و سپس گونه­ های انتخاب شده، براساس عامل­ های موضعی و با کمک پرسش­نامه ­هایی که توسط افراد خبره تکمیل گردیدند، با استفاده از روش تحلیل سلسله مراتبی (AHP) و همچنین روش روش رتبه بندی ساده چند معیاره (SMARTER) وزن ­دهی و در نهایت با کمک روش اولویت بندی براساس شباهت به راه حل ایده آل (TOPSIS)، اولویت‌بندی شدند.
نتایج و بحث: براین اساس گونه­ های درختی اقاقیا، افرا، غان، پیرو، سماق و اوجا برای خاک­ های اسیدی منطقه و گونه ­های گردو، زبان گنجشک و انجیر برای خاک قلیایی و خنثی منطقه به ترتیب اولویت پیشنهاد شدند.
نتیجه ­گیری: می ­توان گفت که از بین گونه­ های درختی انتخابی برای این منطقه، گونه­ هایی که از لحاظ کاهش آلودگی­ ها و جلوگیری از فرسایش خاک موفق­ تر بودند در اولویت هستند. درخت اقاقیا از درختان بومی منطقه به شمار نمی­ رود ولی با توجه به این که نسبت به درختان دیگر از لحاظ حفظ محیط­ زیست موفق­ تر می­ باشد، به ­عنوان گونه برتر برای این منطقه انتخاب شد. در بین گونه­ های بومی منطقه نیز درخت افرا با توجه به هدف حفظ محیط­ زیست در اولویت می­ باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Selection of suitable plant species for Sungun copper mine reclamation by multiple attribute decision making methods (AHP-SMARTER-TOPSIS)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abbas Aghajani Bazzazi 1
  • Ahmad Adib 2
  • Maryam Shapoori 3
  • Mohammad ali Farjoudi Ahangari 2
  • Amir Hossein Bangian Tabrizi 2

1 Department of Engineering, Faculty of Mining Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran

2 Department of Engineering, Faculty of Mining Engineering, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Agriculture and Natural Resource, Faculty of Natural Resource, Savadkooh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Savadkooh, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction: The area of the lands that are influenced by mining operations, especially waste dump, is increasing continuously. Therefore, the necessity of mine reclamation is more important than the past. Selecting suitable plant species is one of the main topics in open pit mine reclamation regarding mined land use and environmental protection. 
Material and methods: In this research, the selection of suitable plant species regarding the environmental rehabilitation of Sungun copper mine was performed. At first, suitable plant species were selected by main criteria such as post-mining land use, climatic condition, and ecological parameters of soil. Then, selected species were ranked based on a questionnaire completed by experts using the combination of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Simple Multi-Attribute Rating Technique (SMARTER), and Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) methods. 
Results and discussion: Suitable tree species in acidic and metallic pollutant lands were Ulmus minorJuniperus communisBetula pendulaRobiniapseudoacaciaAcer compestre, and Rhus coriria, respectively. Native tree species such as Ficus caricaFraxinus excelsior, and Juglans regia were selected for the alkaline region, in a decreasing order.
Conclusions: From the selected tree species for this region, the more successful species in reducing pollution and preventing soil erosion are preferred. Robiniapseudoacacia is not considered one of the native trees of the region. Yet, because it is more successful than other trees in environmental protection, it was selected as the superior plant species for this region. Among the native species of the region, Acer campestre has priority due to the purpose of preserving the environment.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • multiple attribute decision making
  • AHP
  • plant species selection
  • Reclamation
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