نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه علوم و مهندسی جنگل، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، ساری، ایران

10.52547/envs.2021.1048

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: تنوع، گونه ­ای ترکیبی از دو مؤلفه به ­هم پیوسته غنای گونه ­ای و یکنواختی است. مؤلفه اول غنای گونه ­ای است که مربوط به تعداد گونه­ های حاضر در واحد نمونه ­برداری است؛ و دومین مؤلفه یکنواختی است که به نحوه توزیع افراد گونه ­ها در محیط اطلاق می­ شود، یکی از مشکل­ های مهم این سنجه ­ها، جدا نکردن سهم این دو مؤلفه در مقدار سنجه عددی است. روش مؤثری که برای این منظور ابداع شده است، تجزیه و تحلیل SHE نام دارد. پژوهش پیش­رو نیز با هدف بررسی ترکیب و تنوع گونه ­ای و تعیین سهم هر یک از مؤلفه ­های تنوع در چهار توده طبیعی، جنگل­ کاری افراپلت، توسکا ییلاقی و زربین در جنگل کُلِت انجام شد.
مواد و روش ­ها: در این پژوهش با استفاده از ۴۰ پلات مربعی شکل با مساحت ۴۰۰ مترمربع که به­ صورت انتخابی در منطقه مورد مطالعه پیاده شد، ابتدا فهرست کلیه گونه­‌های علفی به تفکیک فرم‌ رویشی و وفور (درصد تاج پوشش) گونه­‌های گیاهی براساس معیار فراوانی - غلبه وان‌­درمال ثبت شد، سپس به شمارش گونه ­های چوبی در هر قطعه ­نمونه پرداخته شد. آنگاه داده‌­های پوشش علفی و چوبی در نرم‌افزار اکسل سازماندهی شدند و در نرم­افزار PAST تجزیه ­های غنا (تعداد گونه، غنای مارگالف و غنای منهنیک)، یکنواختی (شانون - وینر)، تنوع (سیمپسون و شانون - وینر) انجام شد. نرمال بودن داده ­ها نیز با استفاده از آزمون کولموگروف - اسمیرنوف و همگنی واریانس ­ها با آزمون لون در نرم­افزار  SASمورد بررسی قرار گرفت و برای تعیین سهم هریک از مؤلفه ­های غنا و یکنواختی نیز از روش SHE استفاده شد.
نتایج و بحث: نتایج مقایسه میانگین سنجه­ های مختلف تنوع مربوط به گونه­ های علفی نشان داد که چهار توده طبیعی، افراپلت، توسکا ییلاقی و زربین از نظر میزان غنا (مارگالف و منهنیک) باهم اختلاف معنی­ دار دارند (P<0/01). نتایج طبقه ­بندی گیاهان از نظر شکل زیستی به روش رانکایر نیز نشان داد همی­ کریپتوفیت­ ها دارای بیشترین فراوانی هستند، همچنین تجزیه مؤلفه ­های غنا و یکنواختی در مقیاس لگاریتم طبیعی (تجزیه SHE) برای گونه ­های چوبی در منطقه کُلِت نشان داد که میزان یکنواختی روند ثابت بین چهار توده دارد و سنجه غنا در توده زربین و توده طبیعی دارای نوسان بوده و روند افزایشی دارد. در توده توسکا ییلاقی سنجه یکنواختی و غنا در تعیین تنوع گونه ­های علفی و چوبی در این منطقه سهم یکسان داشته و در توده زربین سنجه غنا بیشترین میزان را داشت. همان­گونه که در منحنی مربوط به تجزیه SHE می ­توان مشاهده کرد، منحنی غنا (LnS) و یکنواختی (Ln E) همزمان باهم تغییر نمی­کنند و تغییر منحنی غنا بیشتر از یکنواختی است. این امر بیانگر سهم بیشتر غنا نسبت به یکنواختی در تعیین تنوع داده ­های مربوط به گونه علفی و چوبی در منطقه مورد مطالعه است، در واقع این مسئله نشان می ­دهد که با افزایش تعداد نمونه ­ها تنها گونه ­های نادر و غیرمتداول هستند که به اسامی گونه ­های علفی و چوبی اضافه می­ شوند.
نتیجه­ گیری: به ­طور کلی نتایج پژوهش حاضر نشان داد که میزان تنوع گونه علفی با توجه به آمیختگی گونه ­ها در توده طبیعی بیشترین مقدار را در این منطقه دارد، از طرفی میزان تنوع و غنا گونه ­های چوبی نیز در توده طبیعی و جنگل ­کاری پهن­ برگ بیشتر از توده سوزنی­ برگ است. بنابراین جنگل­ کاری با گونه­ های پهن ­برگ اثر مثبتی روی تنوع گونه­ های گیاهی منطقه دارد. همچنین مؤلفه مؤثر بر سنجه عددی تنوع در چهار توده مؤلفه غنا (Ln S) است، به این معنی که تغییرات و نوسان­ های شدیدی در گونه ­های گیاهی و ترکیب آن­ها مشاهده شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Determining the contribution of the diversity of understory plant species in broadleaf and coniferous trees reforestation (case study: Colet forest of Mazandaran)

نویسندگان [English]

  • khadijeh asghari
  • hamid jalilvand
  • hamed asadi

Department of Forest Science and Engineering, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Sari, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction: Species diversity is a combination of two interrelated components of species richness and evenness. The first component is the species richness, which is related to the number of species in the sampling unit; The second component is evenness, which refers to the distribution of species in the site. One of the important problems of these indicators is not determining the contribution of these two components in the diversity index value. An effective method that has been developed for this purpose is called SHE. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of the diversity of understory species in four natural stands, Acer velutinum Boiss, Alnus subcordata C. A. M. and Cupressus sempervirens. var horizontalis afforestation in the Colet forest.
Material and methods: In this research, 40 square plots with an area of 400 square meters, were selectively used for sampling in the study area. Then, the list of all herbaceous species with their cover percentage was recorded by Vandermarel criteria. Woody species were counted in each sample plot. The grass and wood cover data were imported and analyzed in Excel and PAST software for analyzing of richness (number of species, Margalf richness and Menhenick richness), evenness (Shannon-Wiener), and diversity (Simpson and Shannon-Wiener). The normality and homogeneity of the data were evaluated using Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Leven test, respectively. SHE analysis was used to determine the contribution of each component of richness and evenness.
Results and discussion: The results of comparing the mean of different diversity indices related to herbaceous species showed that the four studied stands (natural, Acer velutinum Boiss, Alnus subcordata C. A. M. and Cupressus sempervirens. var horizontalis) have significant differences in terms of richness (Margalef and Menhinick) (P <0.01). The results of the classification of plants in terms of biological form by the Raunkiaer method also showed that hemicryptophytes have the highest abundance in the study area. Also, the SHE analysis of richness and evenness components for woody regeneration species in the Colet area showed that the evenness of the trend was constant among the four stands and the richness index in the Cupressus sempervirens and natural stands was fluctuating and had an increasing trend. In the Alnus subcordata stand, the evenness and richness indices had the same contribution in determining the diversity of herbaceous species and woody regeneration in this region. In addition, the SHE curve showed that the richness curve (LnS) and the uniformity (Ln E) do not change with each other, and the change in the richness curve is greater than the evenness. This indicates a greater contribution of richness than evenness in the contribution of determining the diversity of data related to herbaceous species and woody regeneration. In fact, this showed that with the increase in the number of samples, only rare species were being added to the list of herbaceous and woody species.
Conclusion: In general, the results of the present study showed that the diversity of herbaceous species due  to species composition in the natural stand had the highest value in this region. Also, richness and diversity of woody plants in natural stand and broadleaves reforestation stands were higher than coniferous reforestation. Therefore, reforestation with broadleaves species has a positive effect on the diversity in the region. Also, the effective factor on the diversity indices in the four stands was the richness component (Ln S), which means that severe changes and fluctuations in plant species and their composition was observed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Acer velutinum Boiss
  • Species diversity
  • Society structure analysis (SHE)
  • Species richness
  • Neka- Zalemrood
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