نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه جغرافیا و اکوتوریسم، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و علوم زمین، دانشگاه کاشان، کاشان، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف:
بسیاری معتقدند بروز مشکلات محیط زیستی به عامل ­های مختلفی از جمله میزان آگاهی، شرایط، بسترها و هنجارهای جامعه بستگی دارد. به همین دلیل باید دانست افراد درباره محیط زیست چگونه فکر می­ کنند، چه شناختی از آن دارند و تا چه اندازه، نسبت به طبیعت و محیط زیست دغدغه دارند. هدف این مقاله آگاهی از تاثیر دانش، نگرش و ارزش­های محیط زیستی گردشگران شهر قم در بروز رفتار محیط زیستی آن­ها است.
مواد و روش­ها:
پژوهش از نظر هدف کاربردی و به لحاظ روش توصیفی – تحلیلی است. جامعه آماری پژوهش را گردشگران شهر قم تشکیل داده ­اند. نمونه آماری با استفاده از فرمول کوکران، 386 نفر برآورد و 200 پرسشنامه بین گردشگران داخلی و 186 پرسشنامه بین گردشگران خارجی به طور تصادفی توزیع گردید. پژوهش طی فاصله زمانی زمستان 1395 و بهار و تابستان 1396 صورت پذیرفته است. ابزار تحقیق، پرسشنامه ­ای است که بوسیله­ ی محقق ایجاد شده است که روایی آن به روش صوری و پایایی آن با ضریب آلفای کرونباخ به میزان 0.762 مورد تأیید قرار گرفت. برای انجام تحلیل های توصیفی و آزمون های آماری t تک نمونه ­ای و ضریب همبستگی اسپیرمن از نرم افزار SPSS و برای مدلسازی معادلات ساختاری از نرم افزار AMOS استفاده گردید.
نتایج و بحث:
جهان در حالتی قرار دارد که متخصصان محیط زیست آن را در حالت فشار بیش از حد و سقوط می­ دانند. تغییر ویژگی­ ها و مشخصه ­های مشکل­ های محیط زیست از سطح ملی به سطح جهانی، از متمرکز به پراکنده، از کوتاه مدت به بلند مدت و از پیچیدگی کم به پیچیدگی زیاد ایجاب می­ کند که به عامل ­های اثر گذار در بروز رفتارهای محیط زیستی توجه بیشتری گردد. تجربه نشان داده است که در مکان­ هایی که گردشگری بدون چارچوب، برنامه ­ریزی و استراتژی مشخص توسعه یافته، مشکل­ های محیط زیستی و اجتماعی متعددی ظاهر شده است و در دراز مدت مشکل­ های گردشگری بیشتر از فایده­ های آن بوده است. بروز چنین رویدادهایی سبب شکل گیری جنبش ­های محیط زیستی گردیده است. به وجود آمدن اندیشه حمایت از محیط زیست ضرورت توجه به ارزش­ها و رفتارهای محیط زیست را بیش از پیش نشان می­ دهد. بدیهی است که در فرایند شکل دهی به رفتار، عامل ­ها و متغیرهای بسیاری نقش دارند. به همین دلیل حرکت به سمت درک بیشتر  پیچیدگی­ های ارزش­ ها، نگرش­ ها، زمینه ­ها و عوامل شخصیتی که رفتار خاصی را تحت تاثیر قرار می ­دهند ضروری است. در تحقیق حاضر نتایج حاصل از آزمون همبستگی اسپیرمن با سطح معناداری 0.776 نشان داد که بین مدت زمان اقامت گردشگران و رفتار محیط زیستی آن­ها ارتباطی وجود نداشته است. نتایج آزمون t تک نمونه­ای بیان می­کند که گردشگران مذهبی از حضور در قم رضایت داشته و نسبت به آن وفاداری دارند. وجود بارهای عاملی به میزان 0.37، 0.41 و 0.41 برای متغیرهای پنهان دانش، نگرش و ارزش محیط زیستی گردشگران نشان داد که متغیرهای اشاره شده در سطح اطمینان 95 درصد بر بروز رفتارهای محیط زیستی گردشگران تاثیرگذار بوده ­اند. از بین عامل­ های مورد بررسی عامل نگرش محیط زیستی گردشگران نقش بیشتری در تبیین رفتارهای محیط زیستی آنان داشته است.
نتیجه ­گیری:  
باید بیان داشت در بین عامل ­های اثر گذار بر بروز رفتارهای محیط زیستی نگرش محیط زیستی گردشگران اثر بالاتری بر رفتارهای آنان داشته است. اثر ارزش­ های محیط زیستی بر رفتار محیط زیستی گردشگران دومین عامل اثر گذار بوده است و ارزش‌های محیط زیستی گردشگران در این بین کمترین اثر گذاری را به خود اختصاص داده است. علاوه بر آن مدت زمان اقامت گردشگران ارتباطی با رفتارهای محیط زیستی آنان نداشته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Modeling the role of knowledge, attitude and environmental values of tourists in showing environment-friendly behaviors (case study: tourists of Qum)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohsen Shaterian
  • Sedigheh Kiani Salmi
  • Seyede Zahra Mirdadashi Kari

Department of Geography and Ecotourism, Faculty of Natural Resource and Earth Science, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction:
Many believe that the occurrence of environmental problems depends on a variety of factors, including the level of awareness, and conditions and norms of the community. For this reason, it's important to know how people think about the environment, how much they know it, and how much they are concerned about nature and the environment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of knowledge, attitude and environmental values of tourists on their environmentally friendly behavior in the city of Qom.
Material and methods:
This research is a descriptive-analytical study. The statistical population of the study were tourists visiting the city of Qom. The sample size was estimated 386 individuals based on Cochran formula. In total, 200 and 186 questionnaires were randomly distributed among domestic and foreign tourists, respectively. This research was conducted during spring and summer of 2017. The research instrument was a questionnaire and its validity was confirmed by the formal method and its reliability was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient (0.762). For descriptive analyzes, one-sample T-test and Spearman correlation coefficient were used with SPSS software and for structural equation modeling, AMOS software was used.
Results and discussion:
Worsening of the environmental problems from national to global level and from short to long term, makes it more important to pay attention to the factors affecting the environment-friendly behaviours. Experiences have shown that there are numerous environmental and social problems in areas where tourism has been developed without a framework, planning and strategy, and in the long run, tourism has created more problems than benefits. The emergence of such problems has led to the formation of environmental movements. The emergence of the idea of protecting the environment further emphasizes on the need for attention to environmental values and behaviors. Obviously, in the process of shaping behavior, many factors and variables are involved. For this reason, it is necessary to move towards a greater understanding of the complexities of the values, attitudes, and personality factors that influence particular behaviors. In the current study, the results of Spearman correlation test with a significant level of 0.776 showed that there was no relationship between the duration of stay of tourists and their environmental behavior. The results of the one-sample T-test indicated that religious tourists are satisfied and are loyal to Qom. Existence of factor loadings of 0.37, 0.41 and 0.41 for the hidden variables of knowledge, attitude and environmental valueof tourists, respectively, showed that these variables had a positive effect on the environmental behaviors of tourists at 95% confidence level.
Conclusion:
It should be noted that among the factors affecting the environmentally friendly behaviors, environmental attitudes of tourists have had a greater effect on their environment-frinedly behaviors. The environmental values were the second most influential factor, and the environmental values of tourists was the least influential factor on the environment-frinedly behaviors. In addition, the duration of stay was not related to the environmentally friendly behaviors of tourists.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Environmental values
  • Environmental knowledge
  • Environmental behaviors
  • Environmental attitude
  • Structural Equation Modeling
  • Qom city

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