نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه آموزشی علوم پایه پزشکی، دانشگاه علوم بهزیستی و توانبخشی، تهران، ایران

2 گروه آموزشی رفاه اجتماعی، دانشگاه علوم بهزیستی و توانبخشی، تهران، ایران

3 دانشکده محیط زیست، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

4 مرکز تحقیقات مدیریت رفاه اجتماعی، دانشگاه علوم بهزیستی و توانبخشی، تهران، ایران

5 گروه مدیریت دولتی، دانشکده اقتصاد و مدیریت، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

6 گروه اقتصاد نظری، دانشکده اقتصاد، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف:
بخش عمده مشکلات موجود در محیط زیست، ریشه در نبود آگاهی لازم و ضعف فرهنگی در زمینه ارتباط انسان و طبیعت دارد، در واقع نوعی مشکل فرهنگی محسوب می ­­شود. از آنجا که نهادینه کردن آموزش و فرهنگ محیط زیستی از زمان کودکی آغاز می­ شود، بنابراین دوره رسمی پیش دبستان می ­تواند یکی از مهمترین دوره­ های سرمایه­ گذاری آموزشی و فرهنگی در زمینه محیط زیست باشد. لذا هدف پژوهش حاضر، نیازسنجی و بررسی تاثیر دوره­های آموزشی بر سطح نگرش، دانش و مهارت ­های محیط زیستی دانشجویان رشته ­ی رشد و پرورش کودکان پیش دبستان دانشگاه علوم بهزیستی و توانبخشی بعنوان پیشگامان آموزش حفظ محیط زیست به کودکان پیش دبستانی است.
مواد و روش ­ها:
برای دستیابی به هدف فوق، 55 نفر از دانشجویان دو ترم آخر رشته ­ی رشد و پرورش کودکان پیش دبستان دانشگاه علوم بهزیستی و توانبخشی در سال تحصیلی 97-96 به روش نمونه گیری در دسترس، انتخاب شدند. در این بررسی سه پرسشنامه 14 سوالی جهت سنجش سطح نگرش، دانش و مهارت نسبت به محیط زیست و مباحث مرتبط مورد استفاده قرار گرفت. داده­ ها با استفاده از آزمون t دو نمونه وابسته در نرم افزار SPSS تجزیه و تحلیل شد. جهت سطح بندی نمره نهایی پاسخ دهندگان از روش منطق 25 درصد ریاضی استفاده شد.
نتایج و بحث:
روایی ابزارهای مورد استفاده از طریق روایی محتوا و با دو سنجه روایی محتوا (CVI) و نسبت روایی محتوا (CVR)، و پایایی آن­ها با استفاده از ضریب آلفای کرنباخ (همسانی درونی) و ضریب همبستگی درون طبقاتی (پایایی در طول زمان) مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. با توجه به نتایج به ­دست آمده هر سه ابزار از روایی محتوای قابل قبول ، همسانی درونی و پایایی در طول زمان برخوردار بودند. مقادیر آلفای کرنباخ سه ابزار سنجش نگرش، دانش و مهارت به ترتیب برابر 0.702، 0.881 و 0.951 و مقادیر ضریب همبستگی درون طبقاتی سه ابزار به ترتیب برابر 0.665، 0.721و 0.734 به ­دست آمد. با توجه به نتایج به­ دست آمده برگزاری دوره آموزشی موجب تغییر نگرش (15.2=Eta2= 2.39، 0.023=p،, t)، بالابردن دانش (7/84= Eta2=13.31، 0.001>p، ,t) و افزایش سطح مهارت (8/59=Eta2=6.90، 0.001>p، , t) آزمودنی ­ها شد. بر اساس نتایج توصیفی مشخص شد که قبل از مداخله 45.5 درصد آزمودنی ها نگرش بالا و بعد از مداخله 75.8درصد نگرش بالایی در خصوص محیط زیست داشتند.  همچنین، قبل از مداخله سطح دانش 60.7 درصد آزمودنی­ ها در سطح پائین تا پائین-پائین در حالی­که بعد از مداخله سطح دانش 84.8 درصد آزمودنی­ها در سطح بالا بود. در نهایت، قبل از مداخله سطح مهارت 36.6 درصد آزمودنی­ ها در سطح بالا در حالی که  بعد از مداخله سطح مهارت 87.9 درصد در سطح بالا بود.
نتیجه ­گیری:
بر اساس یافته­ های به ­دست آمده مشخص شد که برگزاری دوره آموزشی بیشترین تأثیر را به ترتیب بر افزایش سطح دانش نسبت به محیط زیست، و بعد از آن افزایش سطح مهارت و در نهایت تغییر نگرش داشته است. یافته­ های تحقیق حاضر نشان داد که برگزاری دوره ­های آموزش محیط زیست باعث بهبود سطح نگرش، دانش و مهارت دانشجویان می­ شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Effectiveness of environmental educational courses on environmental knowledge, attitude and practice: students of University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences

نویسندگان [English]

  • Najmolsadat mousavi 1
  • Maryam Sharifian Sani 2
  • Sanaz Sanaye Goldouz 3
  • Gholamreza Ghaedamini Harouni 4
  • Azar Darvishi 5
  • Fatemeh Ghamarzad Sheishvan 6

1 Department of Medical Basic Sciences, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Department Of Social Welfare, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

4 Social Welfare Management Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran

5 Department of Public Administration, Faculty of Management and Economics, University of Tarbiat Modares, Tehran, Iran

6 Department of Theoretical Economics, Faculty of Economics, Allameh Tabatabaei University, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction:
The bulk of the existing environmental problems are rooted in the lack of awareness and cultural weakness in the relationship between human and nature, and it is, in fact, a kind of cultural problem. Since the institutionalization of environmental culture and education begins in childhood, the pre-school period can be one of the most important periods of educational and cultural investment in the context of the environment. The goal of the present study was to assess and evaluate the impact of educational courses on the attitudes, and environmental knowledge and skills of students who are getting a major in Growth and Training of pre-school children in the University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sci-ences, who teach pre-school children to protect the environment.
Material and methods:
To achieve the intended goal, 55 senior students of Growth and Training of pre-school children in the University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences were selected by convenience sampling method. Three questionnaires were used to assess attitudes, knowledge, and skills about the environment and related issues. Data wereanalyzed using Paired-Sample T-Test in SPSS software. A 25% mathematical logic was used for categorizing final scores of each scale.
Results and discussion:
Validity of the used tools was investigated by content validity index (CVI) and content validity ratio and their reliability were assessed by Cronbach’s alpha (internal consistency) and intra-class correlation coefficient (reliability during time). According to the results, all three tools had acceptable validity and reliability.Cronbach’s alpha values of attitude, knowledge, and skills were 0.702, 0.881, and 0.951, respectively. ICC of the three variables was cal-culated 0.665, 0.721, and 0.734, respectively. The results revealed that holding an educational course caused changes in the level of attitude (t=2.39, p=0.023, Eta2=15.2), increase in the knowledge level (t=13.31, p<0.001, Eta2=84.7) and increase in the skills of students (t=6.90, p<0.001, Eta2=59.8). According to descriptive results, it was revealed that before the intervention about 45.5% and after the intervention, 75.8% of subjects had positive attitudes towards the envi-ronment. It was also clear that before the intervention, 60.7% of the subjects had some and after the intervention 84.8% had high knowledge about the environment. It was also clear that before and after the intervention, 36.6% and 87.9% of the subjects, respectively,became highly skilled in environmental matters.
Conclusion:
According to the results, holding an educational course had the most impact on the increasing of environ-mental knowledge, then environmental skills, and finally, changing attitudes. The results of this study showed that holding environmental education courses can improve the attitude, knowledge, and skill of students.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Knowledge
  • attitude
  • Skill
  • Environment
  • University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences

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