نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه احیاء مناطق خشک و کوهستانی، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 گروه مهندسی طبیعت، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه جیرفت، جیرفت، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف:
کاربری زمین همواره یکی از مهم ترین شاخص‌هایی بوده است که انسان از طریق آن محیط‌زیست خود را تحت تأثیر قرار داده است. کاربری فعالیتی‌ است که انسان از طریق مصرف منبع­ های طبیعی زمینه ­های رشد و پیشرفت اجتماعی اقتصادی خود را فراهم کرده و در عین حال ساختارها و فرآیندهای موجود در محیط‌زیست را تغییر می‌دهد. یکی از مهم ترین منبع­ هایی که در این دهه از طریق تغییر کاربری زمین مورد آسیب قرار گرفته است، منبع­ های آب بویژه آب زیرزمینی است. با توجه به اهمیت منبع ­های آب زیرزمینی در تأمین آب شرب و کشاورزی، پایش کیفی و توزیع زمانی و مکانی روند تغییرهای آن، از مبحث­های مهم در برنامه‌ریزی و مدیریت منابع آب است. از این رو تحقیق حاضر به بررسی اثرهای ناشی از تغییر کاربری بر کیفیت آب زیرزمینی در دشت کرمان می ­پردازد.
مواد و روش­ ها:
برای تهیه نقشه کاربری زمین دشت کرمان از تصویرهای ماهواره لندست 5، 7 و 8 که به ترتیب دارای سنجنده­های TM (1365)، ETM+ (1380) و سنجنده OLI (1395) می­ باشند، استفاده شد. همچنین به منظور بررسی روند تغییرهای کیفی منبع­ های آب زیرزمینی دشت کرمان از آمار و اطلاعات سال­ های 1381 و 1396 استفاده شد. سپس نقشه­ های پارامترهای کیفی در محیط ARC GIS 9.3  ترسیم شد. در ادامه این نقشه ­ها با استفاده از طبقه بندی برای مصرف­ های کشاورزی بر اساس روش ویلکوکس پهنه بندی شدند و منطقه­ های بحرانی و آلوده روی آن­ها مشخص گردید.
نتایج و بحث:
با استفاده از تصویر­های ماهواره­ای منطقه مورد بررسی به سه واحد کاربری تقسیم شده است. این واحدها شامل منطقه­ های مسکونی، زمین کشاورزی و زمین مرتعی است. کیفیت آب کشاورزی را از روی دیاگرامی به نام دیاگرام ویلکوکس به­دست آمد. نقشه‌های پهنه‌بندی مکانی پارامترهای آب زیرزمینی برای مصرف ­های کشاورزی بر اساس روش ویلکوکس ترسیم شده است. در نهایت با روی هم انداختن لایه­ های SAR و EC با نرم افزار  ArcGIS9.3 وضعیت کیفی آب منطقه برای مصرف ­های کشاورزی بر اساس طبقه بندی ویلکوکس در سال­های 1375 و 1393 تهیه شد (شکل 6) و مساحت هر کدام از گروه­ ها محاسبه گردید.
نتیجه­ گیری:
همچنین تغییرهای کاربری نشان داد که در کلاس کاربری مرتع روند کاهشی اتفاق افتاده است. به‌طوری‌که در مدت 30 سال 1/691 کیلومترمربع از سطح زمین­های مرتعی کاهش‌یافته است. همچنین سطح زمین ­های کشاورزی و منطقه­ های مسکونی افزایش یافته، که این افزایش به مراتب بیشتر از زمین­ های کشاورزی است. بر اساس طبقه بندی ویلکوکس پارامترهای  EC و SAR در مدت این دوره روند رو به افزایش داشته، ولی روند افزایش پارامتر EC بیشتر بوده است. برای پارامتر EC، کمابیش بیشتر منطقه دارای میزان بالایی از این عنصر می‌باشد، که شدت آن در قسمت­های غرب منطقه بیش از دیگر منطقه ­ها است و با گذشت زمان بر شدت آن افزوده شده است. برای عنصر SAR نیز بررسی ­ها نشان داد که میزان این عنصر در سال 1380 در تمامی منطقه در کلاس خوب قرار داشته و در سال 1393 بخش­ های غربی منطقه مورد بررسی در کلاس متوسط قرار گرفته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of land use change on agricultural water quality in Kerman Plain using remote sensing technique

نویسندگان [English]

  • Tayyebeh Mesbahzadeh 1
  • Farshad Soleimani Sardoo 2

1 Department of reclamation of arid and mountain regions, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Natural engineering , Faculity of Natural Resources, University of Jiroft, Jiroft, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction:
Land use has always been one of the most important indications of the adverse impact of mankind on their environment. It is an activity that human beings, through using natural resources, contribute to their socio-economic development and at the same time, alter the processes and structures within the environment. One of the most important sources that have been damaged during the past decades through land use change is water resources, especially groundwater. Considering the importance of groundwater resources in supplying drinking water and agriculture, qualitative monitoring and spatial and temporal distribution of the process of its changes are important issues in planning and managing water resources. Therefore, the present research investigates the effects of changing the use of groundwater quality in Kerman Plain.
Material and methods:
Land maps of Landsat 5, 7 and 8 were used for land use mapping in Kerman Plain. These are TM (1987), ETM + (2002) and OLI (2017) sensors, respectively. Also, in order to investigate the process of qualitative changes of groundwater resources in Kerman Plain, statistical data and information of 2002 and 2017 were used. Then, the maps of quality parameters were mapped to the ArcGIS 9.3 environment. Afterward, these maps were zoned to agricultural classes using Wilcox classification and the critical and contaminated areas were identified. . Spatial zonation maps of groundwater parameters for agricultural purposes were plotted based on Wilcox method. Finally, by coating the SAR and EC layers with ArcGIS9.3 software, the water quality status of the region for agricultural use according to Wilcox classification in 1996 and 2014 the area of each group was calculated.
Results and discussion:
Using satellite images of the studied area, it was divided into three user units. These units included residential areas, agricultural lands, and rangelands. The quality of agricultural water was obtained from a diagram called the Wilcox Diagram. Land use change showed that a decrease has occurred in the pasture user's class. In the course of 30 years, while 1.691 km2 of rangelands have been decreased, the area of agricultural land and residential areas has been increased. The increase was far more in residential areas than agricultural lands.
Conclusion:
 According to the Wilcox classification, the EC and SAR parameters were increased during this period, but the trend of increase in the EC parameter was higher. For the EC parameter, almost the majority of the region had a high level of this element, which is more intense in the western parts of the region than in other regions and has been increasing over time. For the SAR element, studies have shown that the amount of this element was in the good class in all areas of the region in 2002, except for the western parts of the study area which were in the middle class in 2014.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Land use
  • Wilcox diagram
  • Satellite images
  • Kerman Plain

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