نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران

2 گروه اقتصاد منابع طبیعی و محیط زیست، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران

چکیده

 سابقه و هدف: گرمایش زمین بطور فزاینده­ای تعادل اکولوژیکی را تحت تاثیر قرار داده است. امروزه، فعالیت­ های انسانی و بویژه تولیدهای کشاورزی بدلیل انتشار گازهای گلخانه ­ای در اتمسفر زمین، عامل اصلی این پدیده محسوب می ­شوند. بر این اساس، در این مطالعه رابطه تولیدهای کشاورزی با محیط زیست برای کشورهای در حال توسعه اسلامی (گروه D-8) مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. برای این منظور از سطح زمین زراعی و شاخص تولیدهای دامی بعنوان معیار تولیدهای کشاورزی و از ردپای اکولوژیکی بعنوان معیار محیط زیستی استفاده شد.مواد و روش ­ها: بمنظور بررسی رابطه تولیدهای کشاورزی و محیط زیست یک مدل پنل طراحی و همچنین برآورد این رابطه برای 8 کشور عضو این گروه در دوره 1990 الی 2013 انجام شد. با توجه به آزمون ­های ایستایی و هم‌جمعی پنلی، روابط کوتاه‌مدت و بلندمدت به ترتیب با استفاده از روش تصحیح خطای برداری (ECM) و حداقل مربعات معمولی اصلاح شده (FMOLS) برآورد شدند.نتایج و بحث: نتایج مطالعه نشان داد که رابطه ردپای اکولوژیکی و تولید ناخالص داخلی سرانه بصورت N شکل بوده و از لحاظ آماری معنی ­دار است. بعلاوه، نتایج مطالعه گویای آن است که افزایش نسبی مصرف سرانه انرژی، زمین زراعی و تولیدهای دامی منجر به افزایش ردپای اکولوژیکی می­گردد. همچنین 10 درصد افزایش در زمین زراعی کشورهای گروه D-8 منجر به افزایش 15/2 درصدی در ردپای اکولوژیکی شده، حال آنکه 10 درصد افزایش در تولیدهای دامی منجر به افزایش 18/1 درصدی ردپای اکولوژیکی در بلند مدت می ­شود. بعلاوه، افزایش 10 درصدی در مصرف انرژی سبب افزایش 38/7 درصدی در ردپای اکولوژیکی می ­شود. نتیجه گ­یری: نتیجه اصلی مطالعه گویای آن است که فعالیت­ های کشاورزی یکی از عامل­ های ایجاد آلودگی ­های محیط زیستی بوده و بطور معنی ­داری بر ردپای اکولوژیکی در کشورهای گروه D-8 موثر هستند. همچنین، تولیدهای زراعی در مقایسه با تولیدها دامی اثرهای بزرگتری بر ردپای اکولوژیکی در بلند مدت دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Estimating the ecological footprint of agricultural production in D-8 Islamic countries

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Hassan Tarazkar 1
  • Navid Kargar Dehbidi 2
  • Zeinab shokoohi 1

1 Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

2 Department of Economics of Natural Resources and Environment, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction:
Global warming is increasingly affecting the ecological balance of the planet. Nowadays, human activities, especially agricultural productions, are thought to be mainly responsible for this phenomenon, as they have led to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere. Therefore, the present study investigated the relationship between agricultural production and the environment in developing-8 (D-8) countries. To this end, the area of arable land and livestock production index were used as agricultural sector production indices and the ecological footprint (EF) indicator was used as an environmental index.
Material and methods:
A panel model for studying the agricultural production–environment was established. Also, the estimation of this relationship was conducted for all D-8 countries from 1990 to 2013. According to panel unit root tests and panel cointegration tests, the short and long-run relationships were estimated by Error Correction Model (ECM) and Fully Modified Ordinary Least Square (FMOLS), respectively.
Results and discussion:
The empirical results revealed that the relationship between EF and per capita Gross Domestic Production (GDP) was N-shaped and statistically significant. Moreover, the results imply that a relative increase in energy consumption, arable land, and livestock production had a positive effect on the EF. Evidence from the study showed that a 10% increase in crop production land will increase EF by 2.15%, while a 10% increase in the livestock production index will increase EF by 1.18% in the long-run. Furthermore, a 10% increase in energy consumption will increase EF by 7.38%.
Conclusion:
The main finding of this study was that agricultural activities are one of the most important environmental pollutants and have a significant effect on EF in D-8 countries. In addition, crop production has a larger effect on EF compare than livestock production in the long-run.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • ecological footprint
  • Arable land
  • Livestock production index
  • D-8 countries

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