نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه روانشناسی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

 سابقه و هدف:
رشد آلودگی­ های محیط زیست در چند دهه ­ی اخیر منجر به پیدایش نوع جدیدی از مصرف­ کننده به نام مصرف­ کننده سبز شده است. این افراد خود را در برابر محیط زیست مسئول می­ دانند و از محصول­ هایی استفاده می­ کنند که به محیط زیست کمتر آسیب بزند. با شناخته شدن این مصرف­ کنندگان شرکت­ها تلاش بیشتری برای سبزتر کردن فعالیت­ هایشان برای دستیابی به این بخش از بازار انجام می ­دهند. به همین جهت شناسایی فاکتورهایی که بر انتخاب محصول­ ها و خدمات سبز تاثیرگذار است اهمیت می­ یابد. از آنجا که ارزش­ های افراد به عنوان یک پدیده مهم اجتماعی در شکل­ گیری، کنترل و پیش بینی رفتار تاثیر گذار است، بنابراین می­ توانند بر رفتار مصرف سبز تاثیر بگذارد. درنتیجه هدف از این پژوهش بررسی رابطه هر یک از ارزش ­های اخلاقی با رفتار مصرف سبز است.
مواد و روش­ها:
این پژوهش از نوع کاربردی است که با استفاده از یافته ­های تحقیق ­های بنیادی درصدد شناسایی و حل مسئله­ های گوناگون بر می­ آید و از نظر مسیر نیز از نوع پیمایشی است. جامعه آماری این پژوهش کلیه دانشجویان مشغول به تحصیل در دانشکده ­ها و مقاطع تحصیلی دانشگاه شهید بهشتی 17067 نفر است که در سال 1396 در این دانشگاه تحصیل می ­کردند. این بررسی با استفاده از روش نمونه­ گیری در دسترس انجام شد که حجم نمونه 375 نفر مشخص شد. تعداد 353 پرسشنامه  قابل تحلیل وجود داشت. به منظور بررسی ارزش ­های دانشجویان از پرسشنامه ارزش­ های فردی شوارتز استفاده گردید که پایایی آزمون از طریق محاسبه ضریب آلفای کرونباخ 0.89 به­ دست آمد. بمنظور سنجش مصرف سبز از مقیاس 5 سئوالی استفاده شد که اعتبار و پایایی آن قابل قبول بوده است. به منظور تجزیه و تحلیل یافته ­ها از روش­ های آماری توصیفی و استنباطی توسط نرم افزار SPSS استفاده شد.
نتایج و بحث:
مقایسه آماره­ های توصیفی در بین افرادی که از خودروهای سبز استفاده می­کنند نشان داد که 7/37 درصد افراد به دلیل حمل و نقل آسان در دانشگاه، 3/36 درصد افراد برای کمک به بهبود محیط زیست، 2/14 درصد افراد به دلیل قیمت مناسب و 8/10 درصد افراد برای تنوع در رفت و آمد از این خودروها استفاده می­ کنند. همچنین رابطه ترجیح استفاده از محصول سبز نسبت به سایر محصول­ ها با ارزش ­های اخلاقی شوارتز نشان داد که ضریب همبستگی بین ترجیح استفاده از محصول­ های سبز نسبت به سایر محصول­ ها و ارزش برانگیختگی برابر 114/0-r=  است، که در سطح01/0معنادار است. به عبارت دیگر بین ترجیح استفاده از محصول سبز و ارزش برانگیختگی رابطه منفی معنادار وجود دارد. درحالی که بین ترجیح استفاده از محصول سبز و دیگر ارزش­ها رابطه معناداری وجود نداشت. همچنین بین استفاده از محصول سبز برای کمک به محیط زیست یا به عبارتی مصرف سبز و ارزش جهان گرایی رابطه معنادار وجود دارد (۰1/0p <،145/۰r=). بین استفاده از محصول سبز برای کمک به محیط زیست و دیگر ارزش ها رابطه معناداری وجود نداشت.
نتیجه­ گیری:
نتایج نشان دادکه هر یک از ارزش­های شوارتز در مصرف کنندگان سبز از اهمیت یکسانی برخوردار نیستند و تنها ارزش جهان گرایی رابطه مثبت و معناداری با استفاده از خودرو سبز برای کمک به بهبود محیط زیست یا به عبارتی مصرف سبز داشت. رابطه دیگر ارزش ­ها با مصرف سبز معنادار نبود. همچنین بین ترجیح استفاده از محصول سبز نسبت به دیگر محصول­ ها با ارزش برانگیختگی رابطه معنادار و منفی بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the relationship between personal values and green consumption in students of Shahid Beheshti University

نویسندگان [English]

  • Azadeh Askari
  • Sepideh Samaee

Department of Psychology, Faculty of Educational Science and Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction:
In recent decades, the growth of environmental pollution has led to the emergence of a new type of consumer called the green consumer. They regard themselves as responsible for the environment and use products with less damage to the environment. By recognizing these consumers, companies are putting more effort to make their business greener to achieve this market segment. Therefore, identifying the factors that influence the selection of green products and services is important. Since the values of individuals, as an important social phenomenon, is influential in shaping, controlling and predicting their behavior, they can affect the green consumption behavior. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between each ethical value and the green consumption behavior.
Material and methods:
This is an applied research that uses fundamental research findings to identify and solve various problems. In addition, a survey was carried out. The statistical population of this study included 17067 students studying at Shahid Beheshti University from all faculties and educational levels in 2017. The convenience sampling method was used for sampling. According to the sample size table, 375 people were selected and 353 questionnaires were analyzed. In order to evaluate the students' values, Schwartz Personal Values Questionnaire was used. The reliability of the test was estimated at 0.893 by calculating the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. In order to measure the green consumption, five questions were used, the validity and reliability of which were acceptable. In order to analyze the findings, descriptive and inferential statistical methods were carried out by SPSS software.
Results and discussion:
Comparison of descriptive statistics showed that the reason why people used green cars was easy transportation to the university (37.7%), helping to improve the environment (36.3%), reasonable prices (14.2%) and to diversify their trips (10.8%). The relation between the use of green cars for helping to improve the environment with each of Schwartz's ethical values and the relationship between the preference of using green products with these values showed that the correlation coefficient between the preferences of using green products and the excitement value is r= -0.114, which is significant at the level of 0.01. In other words, there is a significant and negative relationship between the use of green products and the excitement value. However, there was not a significant relationship between the use of green products and other values. Also, there is a significant relation between using green products to help the environment (green consumption) and the universalism value (p <0.01, r = 0.145). There was no significant relationship between using green products to help the environment and other values.
Conclusion:
The results showed that not all of the Schwartz values in green consumers are equally important. The existence of individual differences justifies the individual's tendency to use green products. These findings can be applied to environmental practitioners, especially educators and marketers.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Green consumption
  • Individual values
  • Green vehicles
  • Environment

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