An analysis of students’ knowledge and behavior toward water (case study: secondary schools in Mazandaran)

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Social Sciences, Faculty of Humanities & Social Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Mazandaran, Iran

2 Department of Islamic Knowledge, Faculty of Philosophy and Theology, IRIB University, Tehran, Iran


Optimizing energy consumption including water consumption has always been emphasized in all Five-Year Development in Iran. According to Managing Director of Mazandaran Regional Water Authority, said: "We see a lot of changes in the annual flow of rivers in the province, with the average long-term runoff in the rivers of the province is 4500 million cubic meters, which is based on the average The 11-year-old has been reduced to 3900 million cubic meters. He evaluated the precipitation situation during the first two months of the year positively and said: "Compared to last year, about 40 mm of rain was observed, but the river discharge decreased by an average of 39% compared to the index period." He added: "So far, 45% of the volume of reservoirs in the dam has been dewatered. Unfortunately, this rate is about 27% in Shahid Rajaee Dam, which we hope will reach 60%. To resolve the water shortage issue and deal rationally with water problem, the government, has already introduce a project name Danab. This project aims at educating school student with water knowledge and prober behavior. This project believes that of all social groups, school students play significant role to optimize water consumption. Education Organization has already started to apply Danab Project to create and increase students’ knowledge toward water. The organization presume that students’ water consumption behavior will be modified by creasing their water knowledge through this educational program. As such, this study aims to assess students’ water knowledge a well as this knowledge effects on water behavior.
Material and methods:
This project was conducted in Mazandaran province were the public assume there is no waste shortages. This study focused on school students to identify what socio-cultural factors are influencing their water knowledge as well their water consumption behavior. This study benefited survey method. Survey methodology studies the sampling of individual units from a population and associated techniques of survey data collection, such as questionnaire construction and methods for improving the number and accuracy of responses to surveys. Survey methodology includes instruments or procedures that ask one or more questions that may or may not be answered. Having applied survey method, a total of 501 high school students have been selected by using stratified sampling method. The sample were selected across different cities in Mazandaran in 2018. The data was collect via benefiting questionnaire technique and has been processed by using SPSS programme.
Results and discussion:
The results of the current research revealed that there is significant relation between cultural factors and students’ water consumption behavior. The results also showed that the assumed relationship between social factors and water consumption was confirmed empirically. Based on the results of the study, it can be aid that the relationship between institutional factors and students’ water consumption behavior was confirmed. Finally, the results of the study confirmed there was a relationship between water consumption behavior and social back ground of the surveyed students.
The result of the research showed that environmental values, religious belief, formal control and civic participation have played a significant role to guide students water consumption behavior. The result also indicated that environmental values has played most significant role to contribute students’ water knowledge.


  1. Ajzen, I., 1985. From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
  2. Asdollahzadeh, S.M., 2011. Social factors Underpinning water Consumption Patters in Babol. M.A. Theses. Univerty of Mazandaran, Iran.
  3. Azadi,Y., Yazdanpanah, M., Forozanim M. and Mahmodi, H., 2013. Investigating the adaptive behavior of dryland wheat growers facing climate change in Kermanshah County: By protection motivation. Journal of Agriculre Ecology. 7(2), 94-106.
  4. Baiker, T., 2007. How to do socia research, translated by: Hooshang Nayebi. Soroosh Press., Tehran, Iran.
  5. Barr, S., Ford, N.J. and Gilg, A.W., 2003. Attitudes towards recycling household waste in Exeter, Devon: Quantitative & qualitative approaches. Local Environment. 8(4), 407-421.
  6. Bebi, E.,2011. Research method in social sciences, Translated by: Reza Fazel. Samt Press., Tehran, Iran.
  7. Bremner, S. and Jordan, D., 2012. Investigating the impact of water efficiency educational programmes in schools: A scoping study, Waterwise. Available online at:
  8. Devos, D.E.D., 2010. Survey in social research. Trnaslated by: Hooshang Nayebi. Ney Press., Tehran, Iran.
  9. Farrokhian, F., Hosseinpour, M. and Soleimani, A., 2013. Analysis role of educational level in the middle school teachers' attitudes towards criteria related to environmental education. Quarterly Journal of Environmental Education and Sustainable Development. 2(5), 38-31.
  10. Fayyazbakhsh Vaghef, Kh. and Shobeiri, S.M., 2018. Importance of environmental education in the creation of environmental attitude and behavior, Quarterly Journal of Environmental Education and Sustainable Developmen. 6(4), 90-79.
  11. Hawcroft, L.J. and Milfont, T.L., 2010. The use (and abuse) of the new environmental paradigm scale over the last 30 years: A meta-analysis. Journal of Environmental psychology. 30(2), 143-158.
  12. Hemmati, Z. and Shobeiri, M. 2015. An analysis of indicators of promotion of environmnetal culture (Case study: citizens of Shiraz). Journal of Iranain Cultural Studies. 4, 197-215.
  13. Hemmati, Z., 2012. Socioloical explanation of attitudeand behaviour towards electronic waste (Case study: Shiraz), M.A. Thesis. University of Mazandaran, Iran.
  14. Heydar-Khani, H., Zarei, T. and Ghanbari, H. 2015. A study of effects of religisity on water consumption in Geelan Gharb Villages, First Conference on Management, Supply and Consumption of Water. Tehran, Iran.
  15. Hodgkins, S. and Orbell, Sh., 1998. Can protection motivation theory predict behavior? A longitudinal test exploring the role of previous behavior. Psychology and Health. 13, 237-250.
  16. Kaiser, F.G., Wolfing, S. and Fuhrer, U., 1999. Environmental attitude and ecological behaviour. Journal of Environmnetal Psychology. 19, 1-19.
  17. Khoshfar, Gh.R., 2008. Effect social Capital on political participation, Ph,D. Thesis. Allameh Tabatabaee University, Tehran, Iran.
  18. Kollmuss, A. and Agyeman, J., 2002. Mind the gap: Why do people act environmentally and what are the barriers to pro-environmental behavior?. Environmental education research, 8(3), 239-260.
  19. Lipchin, C.D., 2003. Public perceptions and attitudes toward water use in Israel: A multi-level analysis. University of Michigan, USA.
  20. Maleki, A., Salehi S. and Karimi, L., 2013. A study of relation of new ecological paradigm and water consumption behaviour, Journal of Water and Sweage.1, 122-129.
  21. McDonald, F.V., 2014. Developing an integrated conceptual framework of pro-environmental behavior in the workplace through synthesis of the current literature, Administrative Sciences. 4, 276–303.
  22. Meadows, J., Emtage, N. and Herbohn, J. 2014. Engaging australian small-scale lifestyle landowners in natural resource management programmes–Perceptions, past experiences and policy implications. Land Use Policy. 36, 618-627.‏
  23. Putnam, R., 2001. Democracy and civil traditions, Translated by: Mohammad Taghi Delfrooz. Office of Political Reserch in Home Office. Tehran.
  24. Putnam, R., 2005. Social capital- trust, democracy and development. Translated by Afshin Khakbaz and Hassan pooyan. Shirzaeh Publication., Shiraz, Iran.
  25. Rainear, A.M. and Christensen, J.L., 2017. Protection motivation theory as an explanatory framework for proenvironmental behavioral intentions. Communication Research Reports. 34(3), 239-248.
  26. Rezaee, M., 1993. The Impact of native social networking on promoting student's environmental attitude. Quarterly Journal of Environmental Education and Sustainable Developmen. 6(4), 53-66.
  27. Rogers, R.W., 1975. A protection motivation theory f fear appeals and attitude change. Journal of Psychology. 91, 93-114.
  28. Salehi, S., Memar, R. and Bayad, A., 2015. Socilogical explanation of tourists envirnmnetal behaviour (Case study: Park Jangali Noor), Journal of Tourim Developmment and Planning. 15, 107-127.
  29. Salimi, A,. Davari, M., 2007. Sociology of devience. Reserch Center of PajoheSh Gah Hozeh and Daneshgah., Tehran, Iran.
  30. Sarookhani, B., 2006. Research metho in social sciences. Research Center for Humanities and Cultural Studies. Tehran, Iran.
  31. Schwartz, S.H., 1994. Are There Universal Apects of the Structure and Cntents of Human values? Journal of Social Issues. 50, 19-45.
  32. Shah Mansoori, B., Tavakkol, F. 2014. A study of effects of television advertisements by water company on water consumptin among Tehran Citizens, Journal of Media Studies. 9, 25-38.
  33. Stern, C.P., 2000. Toward a coherent theory of environmentally significant behavior. Journal of Social Issues. 56(3), 407–424.
  34. Taie, H., Shah, H. and Maleki, A., 2013. Virtual learning environment necessary condition for improving the quality education in century 21, Quarterly Journal of Environmental Education and Sustainable Development. 1(4), 31-42.
  35. Tang, J., Folmer, H., and Xue, J., 2013. Estimation of awareness and perception of water scarcity among farmers in the Guanzhong plain, China, by means of a structural equation model. Journal of Environmental Management, 126, 55-62.‏
  36. Tatari, M., 2018. Social factors influencing environmnetal support (Case Study: Water consumption behaviour in Babol). M.A. Thesis. University of Mazandaran, Iran.
  37. Tomićević, J., Shannon, M.A. and Milovanović, M., 2010. Socio-economic impacts on the attitudes towards conservation of natural resources: Case study from sea. Forest Policy and Economics, 12(3), 157-162.‏