Ecological structure assessment of urban green space using the landscape approach (case study: Tehran’s 22nd district)

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Environmental Planning and Design, Environmental sciences research center, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran


Urban green space, as an important part of the urban complex ecosystem, offers many ecological, social, and economic services that contribute to the quality of life in cities. Today, the rapid growth of urbanization, along with a lot of changes in land cover and land use, has caused many environmental impacts associated with a reduction in green spaces and, as a result, have negative environmental impacts. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to investigate the trend of changes in the extent and structure of green spaces in the 22nd district of Tehran from 1996 to 2018 with the landscape ecology approach.
Material and methods:
One of the principles of the ecology of the land is to examine the changes in land use and land cover over time. Accordingly, in the present study, using LANDSAT satellite imagery from 1996 and 2018, landslide maps of Tehran’s District 22 were first developed in four classes including man-made, green spaces, open spaces, and water patches. In the following, the selection of landscape metrics at the level of the landscape including normalized entropy, relative richness, edge density, patch area, patch compactness and class-level metrics including the number of patches, edge density at the class level, mean patch size, and mean shape index were analyzed for landscape analysis.
Results and discussion:
The findings reveal that green areas of zone 22 of Tehran in 2018, in aspect of cohesion, size and shape, structurally have been changed rather than 1996, and don't have desirable situation, because the structure of urban green spaces have been diminished. Namely, two type of basic changes have been occurred in ecological landscape, includes developing new polygons and segmentation of polygons.
The findings of the research indicated that green patches in the district 22 of Tehran, in comparison with previous years, in terms of number, area, size and shape have undergone major changes and are not in a desirable condition, because the structure of urban green spaces have been fragmented. Accordingly, suitable spots for the development and improvement of the continuity of urban green patches were presented.


  1. Arekhi, S., 2016. Application of landscape metrics in assessing land use change trends using remote sensing and GIS (case study: Dehloran Desert Region). Geography and Development Quarterly. 40, 59-68.
  2. Ashouri, A., 2017. Review and evaluation of green space application in urban justice (sustainable development) at district 22 of Tehran Municipality. MSc. Thesis. Islamic Azad University, Tehran Central Branch, Iran.
  3. Asgarian, A., Jabarian Amiri, B., Alizade Shabani, A. and Feghhi, J., 2016. Study of development patterns in Sari City using landscape ecology approach. Natural Environment Journal. 1, 95-107.
  4. Beatley, T., 2000. Green Urbanism: Learning from European Cities. Island Press, Washington, D.C. USA.
  5. Gobster, P.H. and Westphal, L.M., 2004. The human dimensions of urban greenways: planning for recreation and related experiences. Landscape Urban Plan. 68, 147–165.
  6. Gupta, K., Kumar, P., Pathan. S.K. and Sharma, K.P., 2012. Urban neighborhood green index a measure of green spaces in urban areas. Landscape and Urban Planning. 105, 325-335.
  7. Jafari, A. and Tabibian, M., 2006. Urban planning of Shirin Shahr City, using the principles of landscape ecology. Sabzineh Shargh Quarterly. 12, 3-11.
  8. Manlun, Y., 2003. Suitability analysis of urban green space system based on GIS. MSc. Thesis. International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation, Enschede, Netherlands.
  9. Mokhtari, Z. and Sayahnia, R., 2017. Principales of Quantifying Landscape Pattern. Ava publisher, Tehran, Iran.
  10. Sayahnia, R., Makhdoum, F.F. and Faryadi, Sh., 2017. Ecological indices in evaluation of urban development capability (case study: Tehran metropolitan area). Environmental Science. 15(1), 77-88.
  11. Sadeghi Banis, M., Banaii, V. and Daraiesh, R., 2013. Using gradient analysis of landscape metrics to investigate the change in urban green space (case study: Tabriz City). Geography Quarterly and Zagros Landscape Program. 6, 7-20.
  12. Sadeghi Banis, M., 2015. Using landscape metrics in improving urban ecological network (case study: Tabriz City). Journal of Gardening News. 32, 62-53.
  13. Senanayake, I.P., Welivitiya, W.D. and Nadeeka, P.M., 2013. Urban green spaces analysis for development planning in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Utilizing THEOS satellite imagery – a remote sensing and GIS approach. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening. 12, 307–314.
  14. Yousefi Roubyat, E., 2011. Evaluating spatial compatibility of urban green space considering ecological principles, case study: neighborhood and regional parks in Birjand. MSc. Thesis. Environmental Planning and Management, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran.
  15. Zarabi, A. and Ranjbar, A., 2013. Analysis of urban landuse using urban planning techniques in the GIS (case study: Shiraz 4th Region). Geography and Environmental Planning. 4, 135-154.