Estimating the ecological footprint of agricultural production in D-8 Islamic countries

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

2 Department of Economics of Natural Resources and Environment, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

3 Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz , Iran


Global warming is increasingly affecting the ecological balance of the planet. Nowadays, human activities, especially agricultural productions, are thought to be mainly responsible for this phenomenon, as they have led to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere. Therefore, the present study investigated the relationship between agricultural production and the environment in developing-8 (D-8) countries. To this end, the area of arable land and livestock production index were used as agricultural sector production indices and the ecological footprint (EF) indicator was used as an environmental index.
Material and methods:
A panel model for studying the agricultural production–environment was established. Also, the estimation of this relationship was conducted for all D-8 countries from 1990 to 2013. According to panel unit root tests and panel cointegration tests, the short and long-run relationships were estimated by Error Correction Model (ECM) and Fully Modified Ordinary Least Square (FMOLS), respectively.
Results and discussion:
The empirical results revealed that the relationship between EF and per capita Gross Domestic Production (GDP) was N-shaped and statistically significant. Moreover, the results imply that a relative increase in energy consumption, arable land, and livestock production had a positive effect on the EF. Evidence from the study showed that a 10% increase in crop production land will increase EF by 2.15%, while a 10% increase in the livestock production index will increase EF by 1.18% in the long-run. Furthermore, a 10% increase in energy consumption will increase EF by 7.38%.
The main finding of this study was that agricultural activities are one of the most important environmental pollutants and have a significant effect on EF in D-8 countries. In addition, crop production has a larger effect on EF compare than livestock production in the long-run.


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