Document Type : Original Article


Department of Water Engineering and Management, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran


Introduction: Climate identification and classification have long been of interest to meteorologists. Researchers have classified the earth into homogeneous climatic zones using different methods and climatic variables such as rainfall and temperature. They have used the results of climate zoning to assess water scarcity and water resources on a small and large scale to anticipate practical measures to control drought in vulnerable areas. The purpose of this study is to update and analyze the Spatio-temporal analysis of Iran's climatic classification based on the Domarten index and the Mann-Kendall test. Because in studies based on climate classification maps, up-to-date maps can better help understand the study area.
Material and methods: For this study, data related to temperature and precipitation variables were extracted monthly from 153 synoptic stations from 1995-2019 from the Meteorological Organization of Iran. First, the data of average annual temperature and total annual precipitation were obtained from monthly data and then, using isothermal maps, they were obtained using the kriging model. The final climate zoning map was prepared using the De-Martonne index based on rainfall and temperature. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was also used to evaluate the significance or non-significance of the De-Martonne climate index and determine the trend.
Results and discussion: The results showed that based on the Kriging model, R2 and RMSE for precipitation data were 0.58 and 167.51 mm, respectively, and for the temperature data were 0.83 and 2.23 °C, respectively. This indicates better performance of the model for temperature data. This is related to the high variance of precipitation data in the country. Iran's climatic zoning based on the De-Martonne index showed six main climatic types in Iran. Most of Iran's area has an arid climate and then a semi-arid climate. The study results showed that arid climate is 76.40%, the semi-arid climate is 19.65%, and other climates make up less than 4% of the area of ​​Iran. Also, the area of ​​arid and semi-arid climates with an area of ​​96.05% of the area of ​​Iran has increased compared to previous research, which may be due to reduced rainfall and increased temperature. Also, the results of the Mann-Kendall test showed that Khorramdareh, Miyaneh, Ramsar, Boroujerd, Piranshahr, Tabriz, and Bijar stations have a significant upward trend (wetting trend), and Dezful, Malayer, Sabzevar, Bandar Anzali, Tehran (Mehrabad), Tehran (Shemiran), Qazvin and Dushan Tappeh stations have a significant downward trend (drying trend) at the significance level of 5%.
Conclusion: This study showed that Iran has six climatic regions, including arid, semi-arid, Mediterranean, semi-humid, humid, and very humid. Also, comparing the results with the results of research done by other researchers in the past showed that the area of arid and semi-arid climates in the study period has increased compared to previous periods. Also, 14% of stations with a downtrend (8 stations) have a significant downtrend, and 7% of stations with an uptrend (7 stations) have a significant uptrend at the significance level of 5%.


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