Fatemeh Kazemiyeh; Asma Eidi; mehdi motalem
IntroductionPlanning for proper waste management and attention to its harmful effects on the environment in any country is one of the most important and necessary principles in order to provide long-term benefits and move towards sustainable development. The overall purpose of this study was to analyze ...
IntroductionPlanning for proper waste management and attention to its harmful effects on the environment in any country is one of the most important and necessary principles in order to provide long-term benefits and move towards sustainable development. The overall purpose of this study was to analyze the barriers to rural waste management (a case study of the central part of Urmia). In order to achieve a comprehensive knowledge of the obstacles, problems and limitations that have led to poor rural waste management in the study area, and this comprehensive understanding of the current situation, pave the way for the adoption of targeted programs to remove barriers and proper rural waste management among the villages.Materials and methodsThe research was applied in terms of purpose and field in terms of data collection.The statistical population of the study included all villagers in the functions of the central part of Urmia city in which rural waste management was performed (N = 136). The questionnaire was the main research tool that was designed using content review and interviews with experts and faculty members of the university and its content validity was confirmed. To evaluate the reliability, 30 questionnaires were completed and the Cronbach's alpha value was 0.91, which indicated the acceptable reliability of the questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software and exploratory factor analysis technique.Results and discussionThe results of factor analysis showed that rural waste management barriers in six groups of educational-cultural barriers (variance dimension 18.13), health - environmental (variance dimension 18.06), knowledge (variance dimension 12.53), environmental (variance dimension 10.96) Disposal management (variance dimension 10.24) and equipment (variance dimension 6.92) were classified as 76.84% of the total variance changes related to rural waste management barriers in the study area. They explained. The first rank in prioritizing the items of educational-cultural barriers, the item of lack of culture required for less consumption, in the items of health-environmental barriers, abandonment and disposal of waste by the villagers in the nearest place (in Passages, river routes, roadsides, etc.) and the occurrence of parasitic diseases for the villagers, in the context of knowledge barriers, lack of knowledge and lack of knowledge of villagers about the economic value of reusing agricultural waste, In the disposal factor, the lack of separation plan at the source and as a result of mixing wet, dry and special wastes with each other and in the environmental factor, the presence of insects and rodents and their increase at certain times of the year at the disposal site And until the collection of waste and finally in the items of equipment, the passages were allocated to the shortage and conversion of conversion industries for reuse of agricultural wastes and wastes.ConclusionEmpowering people through awareness and information, education using appropriate tools and appropriate to the special cultural and social conditions in the field of waste management can be helpful and practical and operational. Coherent and purposeful management for waste management and success in improving environmental issues in the study area requires specific methods and strategic plans. Therefore, it is necessary to take the necessary planning and measures in this regard. It is also recommended to use the participation of people and NGOs to separate at the source and to organize informal activities of collection and recycling of materials in recycling programs, while it is necessary for municipalities, organizations and affiliated bodies. Assist the government in providing the facilities and equipment needed for rural waste management.
Hamid Sarkheil; Meisam Fathi Nooran; Mojtaba Kalhor; Yousef Azimi; Mohammad Talaeian Araghi
Introduction: The process of extracting and exploiting oil and gas resources requires a cycle of production, delivery, and recycling of drilling mud or drilling fluid to achieve the right composition of drilling mud and recycling it as a fundamental issue in the oil industry and also, the environment. ...
Introduction: The process of extracting and exploiting oil and gas resources requires a cycle of production, delivery, and recycling of drilling mud or drilling fluid to achieve the right composition of drilling mud and recycling it as a fundamental issue in the oil industry and also, the environment. For this purpose, waste management methods are usually used. Material and methods: In this study, an alternative method was chosen instead of the conventional method of stabilization/solidification as a drilling waste management process that is environmentally and economically viable. A total of 80 samples were taken from four types of samples taken from nine levels in an oil well in the south Azadegan field, including mud-cutting mixture, washed cutting, fixed mud-cutting mixture by cement (1:12 portion), and fixed mud-cutting mixture by cement and silica (1:12 and 1:400 portion). Results and discussion: Samples were prepared in different types of washed, with drilling fluid, stabilized, with cement, and stabilized with cement and sodium silicate to assess the concentration of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as well as the salinity. The concentration of heavy metals in the samples showed that no waste management process is required to control or reduce the metals in the samples, but salinity and PAHs require treatment at a depth of 1800 m and more. Conclusion: Summarizing the results of the analyzes showed that the washing process is better from the environmental point of view than the conventional method of stabilization/solidification because the contaminants have been removed from the drill bit, which will be utilized as the final product of this process. However, in the stabilization/solidification method, the pollutants are not purified. Therefore, the washing process was able to remove the contaminant from the excavation wells, so that the washed samples were according to the standard soil of Iran until the end of the standard drilling operation.
Sadegh Salehi; Ahmad Bokharaei; Jila Ahmadi
Volume 13, Issue 4 , January 2016, , Pages 43-52
Today the issue of waste management is one of the most crucial issues in the field of waste management of large cities. Lack of land for waste disposal and long-term remain of certain types of waste such as glass, plastic and metals, is leading to undesirable environmental effects as well as pollution ...
Today the issue of waste management is one of the most crucial issues in the field of waste management of large cities. Lack of land for waste disposal and long-term remain of certain types of waste such as glass, plastic and metals, is leading to undesirable environmental effects as well as pollution of soil, water and air. Among the types of waste, household waste accounted a considerable amount of municipal waste and urban studies show that one of the solutions is household waste separated for waste management. Due to the growing volume of waste generated in Tehran and several problems caused the Tehran Municipality has tried to encourage citizens towards waste separation in recent years. This study aimed to investigate the role of training and knowledge in the management of residual household waste. The study area covered Region 8 of Tehran Municipality in 2015. To conduct this research, survey method were applied. The ample of this study was composed of 400 residents of over 15 years old who were living in the region and selected by utilizing quota-random sampling method and the required information was gathered through questionnaires. Analysis was conducted by using spss software. The results also showed that more than half of the respondents have been trained about waste separation. The average level of respondents’ knowledge was reported at high-level. Moreover, analytical results showed that statistically, there was a significant relationship between training and waste separation. Also the amount of training associated with waste separation. According to test correlation people knowledge about waste was associated with waste separation and its correlation was positive and direct. Variables of age, gender, education and income have showed no impact on the separation of waste. In general, the results of this study too empirical support the effect of training on waste separation behavior by citizens and also presented necessity of attention to other social and cultural factors. .In other words, factors training and improving knowledge can not lead to the separation of waste alone and should done a comprehensive study alongside with other factors influencing in the behavior of waste separation.